Additive association of vitamin D insufficiency and sarcopenia with low femoral bone mineral density in noninstitutionalized elderly population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2009–2010
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Vitamin D insufficiency and sarcopenia are crucial risk factors for osteoporosis. In a study of noninstitutionalized elderly subjects, we investigated the simultaneous effect of vitamin D and sarcopenia on bone mineral density (BMD) and found that sarcopenia was associated with low BMD in the femur, especially in those with suboptimal vitamin D levels.
Although vitamin D insufficiency and sarcopenia are prevalent in the elderly population worldwide, their possible influence on BMD has not been determined. We aimed to investigate the different effect of vitamin D insufficiency and sarcopenia on BMD in the elderly Korean population.
Individuals aged 60 or older were selected from those who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010; 1,596 males and 1,886 females were analyzed. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and a panel of clinical and laboratory parameters were also measured.
The study population was divided into four groups according to their vitamin D and sarcopenic status. BMD in total femur and in the femoral neck but not the lumbar spine was markedly decreased in sarcopenic subjects with vitamin D insufficiency [25(OH)D < 20 ng/ml] comparing to other groups, regardless of gender. Multivariable linear regression models showed that BMD was significantly associated with ASM and high daily calcium intake as well as conventional risk factors such as age, body mass index (BMI), and history of fracture. Independent predictors for low femur BMD included sarcopenia, low daily calcium intake, low 25(OH)D levels, age, and BMI.
These data showed that an association between vitamin D insufficiency and low BMD was more prominent in elderly subjects with sarcopenia.
KeywordsBone mineral density Femoral bone Sarcopenia Vitamin D insufficiency
Conflicts of interest
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