Impact of vitamin D fortified milk supplementation on vitamin D status of healthy school children aged 10–14 years
Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem, needing immediate attention. We studied the effect of vitamin D fortification of milk in school children. Our results show that fortification of milk is safe and effective strategy to deal with widespread vitamin D deficiency.
Vitamin D deficiency among school children and adolescents is a well-documented major public health problem, needing immediate attention. To assess the effect of vitamin D fortified milk on serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D [S.25(OH)D] levels, we carried out a prospective double-blind randomized control trial in apparently healthy school children, aged 10–14 years.
Of 776 subjects recruited out of 796 who consented, 713 (boys-300; girls-413) completed the study. Subjects were randomized into three groups. Group A (n = 237) received 200 ml of unfortified milk per day while group B (n = 243) and group C (n = 233) received 200 ml of milk fortified with 600 IU (15 μg) and 1,000 IU (25 μg) of vitamin D per day for 12 weeks. Serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, S.25(OH)D, and urinary calcium/creatinine ratio were estimated at baseline and after supplementation.
Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D < 20 ng/ml] was observed in 92.3 % subjects with mean S.25(OH)D level of 11.69 ± 5.36 ng/ml. There was no significant difference in S.25(OH)D levels among the three groups at baseline. The mean percentage change in S.25(OH)D level in groups B (137.97 %) and C (177.29 %.) were significantly greater than group A (−5.25 %). The percentage of subjects having S.25(OH)D levels >20 ng/ml following supplementation were 5.9 % in group A, 69.95 % in group B, and 81.11 % in group C in comparison to 6.32 %, 4.9 % and 12 %, respectively, at baseline.
Fortification of milk with vitamin D is an effective and safe strategy in improving S.25(OH)D levels in children aged 10–14 years.
KeywordsChildren Milk fortification Vitamin D deficiency
We are grateful to Mr. D H PaiPanandiker, chairman and Ms RekhaSinha, CEO, International Life Sciences Institute (India), and Wg Cdr (Dr) Anjali Gautam for their administrative and tactical support. We also acknowledge help rendered by Gopaljee Dairy Foods Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi in production of fortified milk. We are also thankful to Ms Pamela Marwaha for supervision of the project.
We highly appreciate the support of the school authorities, staff, parents, and the children for their active participation. We would like to put on record our appreciation for the help rendered by Ms Nazmeen, Mr. Anthresh Back, Ms. Anjani Bakshi, and Ms. Pinky Kaushik in successful completion of the project.
This project was funded by DSM Nutritional Products India Pvt Ltd. Vitamin D3 for fortification was provided by them.
Conflicts of interest
The authors have nothing to disclose.
- 26.Viljakainen HT, Natri AM, Kärkkäinen M, Huttunen MM, Palssa A, Jakobsen J, Cashman KD, Mølgaard C, Lamberg-Allardt C (2006) A positive dose–response effect of vitamin D supplementation on site-specific bone mineral augmentation in adolescent girls: a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled 1-year intervention. J Bone Miner Res 21:836–844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Lehtonen-Veromaa M, Möttönen T, Leino A, Heinonen OJ, Rautava E, Viikari J (2007) Prospective study on food fortification with vitamin D among adolescent females in Finland: minor effects. Br J Nutr 100:418–423Google Scholar
- 33.IUF Dairy Industry Research – Indian Industry Research—http://cms.iuf.org/sites/cms.iuf.org/files/IndianDairyIndustry.pdf; Accessed 22nd October, 2012