Impact + resistance training improves bone health and body composition in prematurely menopausal breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial
- 1.8k Downloads
Our randomized controlled trial in prematurely menopausal breast cancer survivors showed that impact + resistance training prevented increases in percentage of body fat compared with controls and also improved BMD at the hip and prevented BMD loss at the spine among exercise-trained women who were menopausal for >1 year.
Cancer treatment-related menopause worsens bone health and body composition in breast cancer survivors (BCS). We investigated whether impact + resistance training could improve bone mineral density (BMD), reduce bone turnover, build muscle, and decrease fat mass in BCS with premature menopause.
We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 71 BCS (mean age, 46.5 years) within 5 years of treatment-related menopause. Women were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) impact + resistance training (prevent osteoporosis with impact + resistance (POWIR)) or (2) exercise placebo (FLEX) 3×/week for 1 year. Outcomes were hip and spine BMD (in grams per square centimeter) and body composition (percent body fat (%BF) and lean and fat mass (in kilograms)) by DXA and bone turnover markers (serum osteocalcin (in nanograms per milliliter) and urinary deoxypryrodinoline (in nanomoles per milliliter).
There were no significant group × time interactions for bone outcomes when using an intent-to-treat approach on the full sample. In analyses restricted to BCS who were menopausal for ≥1 year, POWIR increased BMD at the hip and slowed BMD loss at the spine compared with FLEX (femoral neck—POWIR, 0.004 ± 0.093 g/cm2 vs. FLEX, −0.010 ± 0.089 g/cm2; p < 0.01; spine—POWIR, −0.003 ± 0.114 g/cm2 vs. FLEX, −0.020 ± 0.110 g/cm2; p = 0.03). POWIR prevented increases in %BF (POWIR, 0.01 % vs. FLEX, 1.3 %; p < 0.04). Women with attendance to POWIR at ≥64 % had better improvements in %BF than women attending less often (p < 0.03).
Impact + resistance training may effectively combat bone loss and worsening body composition from premature menopause in BCS.
KeywordsChemotherapy Neoplasm Obesity Osteoporosis Physical activity
Funding was provided by an American Cancer Society Research Scholar Grant (RSGPB-06-092-01-CPPB). We thank the Oregon State Cancer Registry for their assistance with recruitment; Thera-band, Inc. for providing elastic exercise bands; and our research assistants, exercise trainers, and participants.
Conflicts of interest
- 4.Vehmanen L, Saarto T, Elomaa I, Makela P, Valimaki M, Blomqvist C (2001) Long-term impact of chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure on bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal breast cancer patients. The effect of adjuvant clodronate treatment. Eur J Cancer 37(18):2373–2378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Demark-Wahnefried W, Peterson BL, Winer EP, Marks L, Aziz N, Marcom PK, Blackwell K, Rimer BK (2001) Changes in weight, body composition, and factors influencing energy balance among premenopausal breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 19(9):2381–2389PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 20.Hadji P, Asmar L, van Nes J, Menschik T, Hasenburg A, Kuck J, Nortier J, van de Velde C, Jones S, Ziller M (2011) The effect of exemestane and tamoxifen on bone health within the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial: a meta-analysis of the US, German, Netherlands, and Belgium sub-studies. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 137(6):1015–1025PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Schmitz KH, Courneya KS, Matthews C, Demark-Wahnefried W, Galvao DA, Pinto BM, Irwin ML, Wolin KY, Segal RJ, Lucia A, Schneider CM, Vong VE, Schwartz AL (2010) American college of sports medicine roundtable on exercise guidelines for cancer survivors. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42(7):1409–1426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 34.Saarto T, Sievänen H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen P, Nikander R, Vehmanen L, Huovinen R, Kautiainen H, Järvenpää S, Penttinen H, Utriainen M, Jääskeläinen A, Elme A, Ruohola J, Palva T, Vertio H, Rautalahti M, Fogelholm M, Luoto R, Blomqvist C (2012) Effect of supervised and home exercise training on bone mineral density among breast cancer patients. A 12-month randomised controlled trial. Osteoporos Int 23:1601–1612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.Waltman NL, Twiss JJ, Ott CD, Gross GJ, Lindsey AM, Moore TE, Berg K, Kupzyk K (2010) The effect of weight training on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors with bone loss: a 24-month randomized controlled trial. Osteoporos Int 21(8):1361–1369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 45.Ganz PA, Land SR, Geyer CE, Cecchini RS, Costantino JP, Pajon ER, Fehrenbacher L, Atkins JN, Polikoff JA, Vogel VG, Erban JK, Livingston RB, Perez EA, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N, Swain SM (2011) Menstrual history and quality-of-life outcomes in women with node-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant therapy on the NSABP B-30 trial. J Clin Oncol 29(9):1110–1116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar