Vitamin D2 from light-exposed edible mushrooms is safe, bioavailable and effectively supports bone growth in rats
- First Online:
- 607 Downloads
Widespread poor vitamin D status, a health risk for bone disease, increases the need for new food sources of vitamin D. Light-exposed edible mushrooms synthesize vitamin D2. Bioavailability, safety, and efficacy of high levels of vitamin D2 from mushrooms to support bone health was established in chronically fed growing rats.
Poor vitamin D status from reduced sun exposure is made worse by limited access to vitamin D-containing foods. Exposing white button mushrooms to ultraviolet B (UVB) light markedly increases their vitamin D2 content, creating a new food source of vitamin D. We used a growing rat model to determine safety, bioavailability, and efficacy in support of bone growth by vitamin D2 from UVB-exposed mushrooms.
We fed 150 weanling female rats one of five diets for 10 weeks, all formulated on AIN-93 G. Control diets contained no mushrooms either with or without vitamin D3. Other diets contained 2.5% and 5.0% of UVB-exposed or -unexposed mushrooms. Safety of the high levels of vitamin D2 from mushrooms was assessed by animal growth and by Von Kossa staining for soft tissue calcification. Bioavailability was determined from changes in circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Efficacy in support of bone growth was determined from measures of femur bending properties, size, mineralization, and microarchitecture.
Diets containing 2.5% and 5.0% light-exposed mushrooms significantly raised 25(OH)D and suppressed PTH levels compared to control-fed rats or rats fed 5.0% mushroom unexposed to light. Microarchitecture and trabecular mineralization were only modestly higher in the light-treated mushroom-fed rats compared to the controls. Von Kossa staining revealed no soft tissue calcification despite very high plasma 25(OH)D.
Vitamin D2 from UVB-exposed mushrooms is bioavailable, safe, and functional in supporting bone growth and mineralization in a growing rat model without evidence of toxicity.
KeywordsBioavailability Microarchitecture Microcomputed tomography Safety Trabecular bone Vitamin D2 White button mushrooms
- 1.Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board (1997) Dietary reference intakes: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 8.Department of Agriculture, Department of Health and Human Services, Dietary guidelines for Americans 2010 [Internet]. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC; 2011 Jan 11. Available from: http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/DGAs2010-PolicyDocument.htm. Last accessed August 5, 2011
- 9.Dietary guidelines advisory committee. The report of the dietary guidelines advisory committee on the dietary guidelines for Americans, 2010. Department of Health and Human Services, Washingtion, DC, 2010. Available from: http://www.cnpp.USDA.gov/dgas2010-dgacreport.htm. Last accessed August 11, 2011
- 12.Simon R, Phillips K, Horst R, Munro I (2011) Vitamin D mushrooms: comparison of the composition of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) treated post harvest with UVB light or sunlight. J Agric Food Chem 59:8724–8732. Publication date: 8 July 2011Google Scholar
- 13.Whiting S, Calvo M (2011) Chapter 54: Lifestyle and nutritional determinants of vitamin status. In: Feldman D, Pike WJ, Adams JS (eds) Vitamin D, 3rd edn, pp 979–1007. Wiley-BlackwellGoogle Scholar
- 17.Calvo M, Whiting S (2010) Chapter 18: Determinants of vitamin D intakes. In: Holick MF (ed) Vitamin D: physiology, molecular biology and clinical applications, 2nd edn, pp 361–382. Humana PressGoogle Scholar
- 21.Phillips K, Ruggio D, Horst R, Minor B, Simon R, Feeney M, Byrdwell W, Haytowitz D (2011) Vitamin D and sterol composition of ten types of mushrooms from retail suppliers in the United States. J Agric Food Chem 59:7841–7853Google Scholar
- 22.Babu U, Balan K, Amankwa-Sakyi M, Garthoff L, Calvo M (2011) Assessment of immuno-modulatory effects of vitamin D2-enriched mushroom consumption on LPS response using splenocyte microarray of genes regulating inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and their receptors. Mol Nutr Food Res, submitted for publicationGoogle Scholar
- 31.Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board (2011) Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D; National Academy of Science (NAS). The National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 37.Ouitila T, Mattila P, Piironen V, Lambert-Allardt C (1999) Bioavailability of vitamin D from wild edible mushrooms (Cantharellus tubaeformis) as measured with a human bioassay. Am J Clin Nutr 69:95–98Google Scholar
- 39.Urbain P, Singler F, Ihorst G, Biesalski, Bertz H (2011) Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a randomized controlled trial. Euro J Clin Nutr 65:965–971Google Scholar