Association between vitamin K intake from fermented soybeans, natto, and bone mineral density in elderly Japanese men: the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) study
- 1k Downloads
A cross-sectional analysis of 1,662 community dwelling elderly Japanese men suggested that habitual natto intake was significantly associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD). When adjustment was made for undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels, this association was insignificant, showing the natto–bone association to be primarily mediated by vitamin K.
Low vitamin K intake is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, but reports have been inconsistent on its effect on BMD. Our first aim was to examine the association between BMD and intake of fermented soybeans, natto, which contain vitamin K1 (20 μg/pack) and K2 (380 μg/pack). Our second aim was to examine the association between undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), a biomarker of vitamin K intake, and BMD to evaluate the role of vitamin K in this association.
Of the Japanese men aged ≥65 years who participated in the baseline survey of the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men study, 1,662 men without diseases or medications known to affect bone metabolism were examined for associations between self-reported natto intake or serum ucOC levels with lumbar spine or hip BMD.
The subjects with greater intake of natto showed significantly lower level of serum ucOC. Analysis after adjustment for confounding variables showed an association of greater intake of natto with both significantly higher BMD and lower risk of low BMD (T-score < −1 SD) at the total hip and femoral neck. This association became insignificant after further adjustment for ucOC level.
Habitual intake of natto was associated with a beneficial effect on bone health in elderly men, and this association is primarily due to vitamin K content of natto, although the lack of information on dietary nutrient intake, including vitamin K1 and K2, prevented us from further examining the association.
KeywordsBone density Men Osteocalcin Soy foods Undercarboxylated osteocalcin Vitamin K
The Fujiwara-kyo Study Group, chaired by Norio Kurumatani with Nozomi Okamoto as a secretary general comprising Nobuko Amano, Yuki Fujita, Akihiro Harano, Kan Hazaki, Masayuki Iki, Junko Iwamoto, Akira Minematsu, Masayuki Morikawa, Keigo Saeki, Noriyuki Tanaka, Kimiko Tomioka, and Motokazu Yanagi, performed most non-skeletal measures in the present study and provided the data to the FORMEN study. The FORMEN study was supported by several grants as follows: Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (no. 20659103: 2008–2009, no. 21390210: 2009–2011, no. 20590661: 2008–2010) from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (no. 20790451: 2008–2010) from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; a Grant-in-Aid for Study on Milk Nutrition (2008) from the Japan Dairy Association; a grant (2007) from the Foundation for Total Health Promotion; a St. Luke's Life Science Institute Grant-in-Aid for Epidemiological Research (2008); and a grant (2008) from the Physical Fitness Research Institute, MEIJIYASUDA Life Foundation of Health and Welfare. The authors acknowledge Eisai Co. Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan) and Sanko Junyaku Co. Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan) for their cooperation in measuring ucOC in sera, Toyukai Medical Corporation (Tokyo, Japan) and Toyo Medic Inc., (Osaka, Japan) for DXA scanning, and SRL Inc. (Tokyo, Japan) for their technical assistance in laboratory measurements.
Conflicts of interest
- 7.Kaneki M, Hodges SJ, Hosoi T, Fujiwara S, Lyons A, Crean SJ, Ishida N, Nakagawa M, Takechi M, Sano Y, Mizuno Y, Hoshino S, Miyao M, Inoue S, Horiki K, Shiraki M, Ouchi Y, Orimo H (2001) Japanese fermented soybean food as the major determinant of the large geographic difference in circulating levels of vitamin K2: possible implications for hip-fracture risk. Nutrition 17:315–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Iki M, Fujita Y, Tamaki J, Kouda K, Yura A, Kadowaki E, Sato Y, Moon JS, Okamoto N, Kurumatani N, Study Group for Functioning Capacity and Quality of Life in Elderly Japanese (Fujiwara-kyo Study Group) (2009) Design and baseline characteristics of a prospective cohort study for determinants of osteoporotic fracture in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men: the Fujiwara-kyo osteoporosis risk in men (FORMEN) study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 10:165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Nathan H (1962) Osteophytes of the vertebral column. J Bone Joint Surg 44-A:243–269Google Scholar
- 19.Tomioka K, Hazaki K, Iwamoto J (2009) The cross-sectional study of daily step count, physical function and health-related Quality of Life for community-dwelling older adults. The 24th Research-Aid Report in medical and health science of Meiji Yasuda Life Foundation of Health and Welfare 24:1–11 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- 22.Binkley N, Harke J, Krueger D, Engelke J, Vallarta-Ast N, Gemar D, Checovich M, Chappell R, Suttie J (2009) Vitamin K treatment reduces undercarboxylated osteocalcin but does not alter bone turnover, density, or geometry in healthy postmenopausal North American women. J Bone Miner Res 24:983–991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Iki M, Dongmei N, Tamaki J, Sato Y, Kagamimori S, Kagawa Y, Yoneshima H (in press) For the Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Study Group (2010) Age-specific reference values of hip geometric indices from a representative sample of the Japanese female population: Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Study. Osteoporos Int 30Google Scholar
- 35.Kanazawa I, Yamaguchi T, Yamauchi M, Yamamoto M, Kurioka S, Yano S, Sugimoto T (2010) Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin was inversely associated with plasma glucose level and fat mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Osteoporos Int. (in press)Google Scholar