Risk factors for peripheral fractures vary by age in older men—the prospective MINOS study
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Identification of older men at high risk of peripheral fracture can be improved by assessing prevalent fractures (men aged ≤65), history of falls (men aged >65), bone width, and aortic calcifications.
Low bone mineral density (BMD) identifies 20% of men who sustain osteoporotic fracture. We studied (1) if the assessment of bone width, aortic calcifications, prevalent falls and fractures improves identification of men at high risk of fracture and (2) if the predictive value of these parameters varies with age.
Among 781 men aged 50 and over, 61 men sustained 66 low-trauma peripheral fractures during 10 years. History of falls and prevalent fractures was assessed by questionnaire. BMD and bone with were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Abdominal aortic calcifications were assessed on the lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine.
Low BMD, low bone width, extended aortic calcifications, prevalent fractures (mainly multiple fractures) and frequent falls were all associated independently with higher risk of fracture. In men aged ≤65, prevalent fractures are associated with a significant increase in the risk of fracture (two- to threefold for one and four- to fivefold for multiple prevalent fractures). In men aged >65, history of falls is associated with a higher risk of fracture, e.g. frequent falls are associated with a sixfold increase in the risk of fracture.
Men aged ≤65 with multiple prevalent fractures and frequent fallers aged >65 are at particularly high risk of peripheral fracture regardless of BMD.
KeywordsBone mineral density Fall Fracture Fracture prediction Men Prevalent fracture
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