Long-term prospective study of osteoporotic patients treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty after fragility fractures
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This paper presents a prospective study on factors that could influence fracture risk after percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in 115 osteoporotic patients. The mean follow-up was 39 months. The incidence of new fractures after PVP was 27.8%. Low body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), and vitamin D are factors associated with increased risk of new fractures.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that could increase the occurrence of new vertebral fractures (VFx) after PVP.
In our prospective study, we included patients of both sexes with osteoporosis (OP) and at least one painful VFx. We performed a baseline biochemical evaluation (including vitamin D plasma levels) and collected demographic, BMD, and clinical data. One hundred fifteen patients were treated with PVP and assigned to oral bisphosphonates plus Ca and vitamin D. The patients returned to control visits after 1, 3, and 6 months and every 6 months thereafter. X-rays film of the dorsolumbar spine was repeated every 12 months, or in case of pain that would suggest VFx occurrence.
The mean follow-up was 39 ± 16 months (range, 15–79). Thirty-two patients (27.8%) had new fragility VFx, all symptomatic. All the fractured patients agreed to undergo a new PVP. We compared the patients who had new VFx to those who had not, and we found significantly lower BMI, total hip, and femoral neck T-scores in the group with new VFx. Furthermore, baseline plasma levels of 25(OH) vitamin D (25(OH)D) were significantly lower in this group. Upon analyzing plasma levels of 25(OH)D 12 months after PVP, we found that a significant difference still persisted: 22 ± 12 (group with new VFx) vs. 41 ± 22 ng/ml (group with no VFx; p < 0.01).
We found that in patients with OP treated with PVP, the incidence of new VFx was 27.8% after 39 months; low BMI, BMD, and vitamin D are factors associated with increased risk of new VFx in patients treated with PVP.