Early treatment with zoledronic acid prevents bone loss at the hip following acute spinal cord injury
- First Online:
Osteoporosis after spinal cord injury is common. Reductions in bone density are rapid and fracture rates are higher after injury. Early treatment with 4 mg zoledronic acid significantly reduced bone loss at the hip compared to untreated individuals in the first year. Treatment appeared safe and well tolerated.
Bone mineral density (BMD) is lost rapidly following spinal cord injury (SCI), predominantly in the lower limbs. Bone turnover markers suggest an early increase in resorption.
A randomised, open-label study of 14 patients with acute SCI randomised to receive 4 mg IV zoledronic acid or standard treatment. BMD was measured by dual-X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine and hip (femoral neck, total and trochanter) at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Bone turnover markers (serum C-terminal telopeptide and Procollagen I N-terminal peptide and urinary N-terminal telopeptide/Cr ratio) were also measured.
After 12 months, there was a significant difference in BMD between the groups at the total hip (12.4%, p = 0.005), trochanter (13.4%, p = 0.028) and lumbar spine (2.7%, p = 0.033). However, the difference between groups at the femoral neck was not significant (4.8%, p = 0.741). In the treated group, bone resorption was reduced and remained reduced up to 12 months. Other than flu-like symptoms immediately after the infusion, no adverse events were observed.
IV zoledronic acid is an effective and well-tolerated treatment to prevent bone mineral density loss at the total hip and trochanter for up to 12 months following SCI.
KeywordsBisphosphonate Osteoporosis Spinal cord injury Zoledronic acid
- 12.Reid IR, Brown JP, Burckhardt P, Horowitz Z, Richardson P, Trechsel U, Widmer A, Devogelaer JP, Kaufman JM, Jaeger P, Body JJ, Brandi ML, Broell J, Di Micco R, Genazzani AR, Felsenberg D, Happ J, Hooper MJ, Ittner J, Leb G, Mallmin H, Murray T, Ortolani S, Rubinacci A, Saaf M, Samsioe G, Verbruggen L, Meunier PJ (2002) Intravenous zoledronic acid in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. N Engl J Med 346:653–661CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.Black DM, Delmas PD, Eastell R, Reid IR, Boonen S, Cauley JA, Cosman F, Lakatos P, Leung PC, Man Z, Mautalen C, Mesenbrink P, Hu H, Caminis J, Tong K, Rosario-Jansen T, Krasnow J, Hue TF, Sellmeyer D, Eriksen EF, Cummings SR (2007) Once-yearly zoledronic acid for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 356:1809–1822CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 14.Hosking D, Lyles K, Brown JP, Fraser WD, Miller P, Curiel MD, Devogelaer JP, Hooper M, Su G, Zelenakas K, Pak J, Fashola T, Saidi Y, Eriksen EF, Reid IR (2007) Long-term control of bone turnover in Paget’s disease with zoledronic acid and risedronate. J Bone Miner Res 22:142–148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Gilchrist NL, Frampton CM, Acland RH, Nicholls MG, March RL, Maguire P, Heard A, Reilly P, Marshall K (2007) Alendronate prevents bone loss in patients with acute spinal cord injury: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1385–1390CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.Cranney A, Wells G, Willan A, Griffith L, Zytaruk N, Robinson V, Black D, Adachi J, Shea B, Tugwell P, Guyatt G (2002) Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. II. Meta-analysis of alendronate for the treatment of postmenopausal women. Endocr Rev 23:508–516CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar