Osteoporosis and gait and balance disturbances in older sarcopenic obese New Zealanders
- First Online:
- 680 Downloads
Bone, muscle, and fat may affect gait and balance in older adults. Osteoporosis was prevalent in low muscle mass participants and related to gait and balance deficits. Low muscle combined with high fat mass had more functional deficits and poorer bone health, which has implications for falls risk and fractures.
Decreasing bone density and muscle mass and increasing fat mass may act synergistically to affect gait and balance in older adults.
One hundred eighty-three older adults (age 72.7 ± 6 years, range 56–93; body mass index 28.2 ± 4.9, range 16.6–46.0) were recruited from a New Zealand falls prevention intervention trial. Total and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), percent fat, and bone mineralization were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and used to characterize normal lean (NL, n = 51), sarcopenic (SS, n = 18), sarcopenic obese (SO, n = 29), and obese (OO, n = 85) phenotypes. Functional performance was assessed using timed up and go, chair stand, single leg stand, and step test. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, medications, and physical activity.
Femoral neck osteoporosis was present in 22% SS, 17% SO, 12% NL, and 7% OO. Femoral neck osteoporosis with low ASM predicted poor chair stand performance (β −3.3, standard error 1.6, p = 0.04). SO scored lowest on the chair stand (p = 0.03) and step test (p = 0.03). Higher ASM predicted faster timed up and go performance (p = 0.001).
Osteoporosis was prevalent in low ASM groups (SS and SO) and related to gait and balance deficits, particularly in the SO. This has implications for falls risk, fractures, and interventions.
KeywordsAging Bone mineral density Physical performance Sarcopenia Sarcopenic obesity
- 1.Baumgartner RN, Waters DL (2006) Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity. In: Pathy J, Sinclair AJ, Morley JE (eds) Principles and practice of geriatric medicine, 4th edn. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp 909–934Google Scholar
- 23.Podsiadlo D, Richardson S (1991) The timed “up & go”: a test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 39:42–48Google Scholar
- 24.McLean G, Tobias M (2004) The New Zealand physical activity questionnaires. Report on the validation and use of the NZPAQ-LF and NZPAQ-SF self-report physical activity survey instruments. Sport and Recreation New Zealand (SPARC), Wellington, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
- 28.Ministry of Health (2008) A portrait of health. Key results of the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. Ministry of Health, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
- 31.Taaffee DR, Simonsick EM, Visser M (2003) Lower extremity physical performance and hip bone mineral density in elderly black and white men and women: cross-sectional associations in the health ABC study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 58:M934–M942Google Scholar