Osteoporosis International

, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 1241–1251 | Cite as

Effects of a multi-component exercise program and calcium–vitamin-D3-fortified milk on bone mineral density in older men: a randomised controlled trial

  • S. Kukuljan
  • C. A. Nowson
  • S. L. Bass
  • K. Sanders
  • G. C. Nicholson
  • M. J. Seibel
  • J. Salmon
  • R. M. Daly
Original Article

Abstract

Summary

We examined the independent and combined effects of a multi-component exercise program and calcium–vitamin-D3-fortified milk on bone mineral density (BMD) in older men. Exercise resulted in a 1.8% net gain in femoral neck BMD, but additional calcium–vitamin D3 did not enhance the response in this group of older well-nourished men.

Introduction

This 12-month randomised controlled trial assessed whether calcium–vitamin-D3-fortified milk could enhance the effects of a multi-component exercise program on BMD in older men.

Methods

Men (n = 180) aged 50–79 years were randomised into: (1) exercise + fortified milk; (2) exercise; (3) fortified milk; or (4) controls. Exercise consisted of high intensity progressive resistance training with weight-bearing impact exercise. Men assigned to fortified milk consumed 400 mL/day of low fat milk providing an additional 1,000 mg/day calcium and 800 IU/day vitamin D3. Femoral neck (FN), total hip, lumbar spine and trochanter BMD and body composition (DXA), muscle strength 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were assessed.

Results

There were no exercise-by-fortified milk interactions at any skeletal site. Exercise resulted in a 1.8% net gain in FN BMD relative to no-exercise (p < 0.001); lean mass (0.6 kg, p < 0.05) and muscle strength (20–52%, p < 0.001) also increased in response to exercise. For lumbar spine BMD, there was a net 1.4–1.5% increase in all treatment groups relative to controls (all p < 0.01). There were no main effects of fortified milk at any skeletal site.

Conclusion

A multi-component community-based exercise program was effective for increasing FN BMD in older men, but additional calcium–vitamin D3 did not enhance the osteogenic response.

Keywords

BMD Calcium Exercise Fortified milk Men Vitamin D3 

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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Kukuljan
    • 1
  • C. A. Nowson
    • 1
  • S. L. Bass
    • 1
  • K. Sanders
    • 2
  • G. C. Nicholson
    • 2
  • M. J. Seibel
    • 3
  • J. Salmon
    • 1
  • R. M. Daly
    • 4
  1. 1.Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition SciencesDeakin UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences: Barwon HealthThe University of MelbourneGeelongAustralia
  3. 3.Bone Research Program, ANZAC Research InstituteThe University of SydneyNew South WalesAustralia
  4. 4.Department of MedicineThe University of Melbourne, Western HospitalMelbourneAustralia

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