Osteoporosis International

, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 1241–1251 | Cite as

Effects of a multi-component exercise program and calcium–vitamin-D3-fortified milk on bone mineral density in older men: a randomised controlled trial

  • S. Kukuljan
  • C. A. Nowson
  • S. L. Bass
  • K. Sanders
  • G. C. Nicholson
  • M. J. Seibel
  • J. Salmon
  • R. M. Daly
Original Article



We examined the independent and combined effects of a multi-component exercise program and calcium–vitamin-D3-fortified milk on bone mineral density (BMD) in older men. Exercise resulted in a 1.8% net gain in femoral neck BMD, but additional calcium–vitamin D3 did not enhance the response in this group of older well-nourished men.


This 12-month randomised controlled trial assessed whether calcium–vitamin-D3-fortified milk could enhance the effects of a multi-component exercise program on BMD in older men.


Men (n = 180) aged 50–79 years were randomised into: (1) exercise + fortified milk; (2) exercise; (3) fortified milk; or (4) controls. Exercise consisted of high intensity progressive resistance training with weight-bearing impact exercise. Men assigned to fortified milk consumed 400 mL/day of low fat milk providing an additional 1,000 mg/day calcium and 800 IU/day vitamin D3. Femoral neck (FN), total hip, lumbar spine and trochanter BMD and body composition (DXA), muscle strength 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were assessed.


There were no exercise-by-fortified milk interactions at any skeletal site. Exercise resulted in a 1.8% net gain in FN BMD relative to no-exercise (p < 0.001); lean mass (0.6 kg, p < 0.05) and muscle strength (20–52%, p < 0.001) also increased in response to exercise. For lumbar spine BMD, there was a net 1.4–1.5% increase in all treatment groups relative to controls (all p < 0.01). There were no main effects of fortified milk at any skeletal site.


A multi-component community-based exercise program was effective for increasing FN BMD in older men, but additional calcium–vitamin D3 did not enhance the osteogenic response.


BMD Calcium Exercise Fortified milk Men Vitamin D3 


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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Kukuljan
    • 1
  • C. A. Nowson
    • 1
  • S. L. Bass
    • 1
  • K. Sanders
    • 2
  • G. C. Nicholson
    • 2
  • M. J. Seibel
    • 3
  • J. Salmon
    • 1
  • R. M. Daly
    • 4
  1. 1.Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition SciencesDeakin UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences: Barwon HealthThe University of MelbourneGeelongAustralia
  3. 3.Bone Research Program, ANZAC Research InstituteThe University of SydneyNew South WalesAustralia
  4. 4.Department of MedicineThe University of Melbourne, Western HospitalMelbourneAustralia

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