Advertisement

Effects of vitamin D insufficiency on bone mineral density in African American men

  • N. Akhter
  • B. Sinnott
  • K. Mahmood
  • S. Rao
  • S. Kukreja
  • E. BarengoltsEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Summary

In African American men serum, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was below 30 ng/ml in 89% of subjects. In overall group, there was no correlation between 25-OHD and bone mineral density (BMD). A subgroup analysis of subjects with 25-OHD ≤15 ng/ml showed that serum 25-OHD was positively associated with BMD.

Introduction

This study examined the effects of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) on bone mineral density (BMD) in African American (AA) men from the general medicine clinic at an inner city Veteran Administration medical center.

Methods

The data for 112 AA males who had both 25-OHD levels and BMD of spine and hip were extracted and analyzed using SAS software.

Results

AA men were aged 38 to 85 years, with mean age of 62 years. Levels of 25-OHD ranged from 4 to 45 ng/ml, with mean 17.5 ng/ml, 24% and 89% of the subjects had 25-OHD below 10 and 30 ng/ml, respectively. In the overall group, there was no correlation between 25-OHD and BMD at any site. In a subgroup analysis of subjects with 25-OHD ≤15 ng/ml, in multiple adjusted models, 25-OHD was positively associated with BMD of spine (r = 0.26, p = 0.05), total hip (r = 0.27, p < 0.05), ward’s triangle (r = 0.25, p = 0.05), and trochanter (r = 0.30, p < 0.05).

Conclusions

The negative effect of vitamin D insufficiency on bone was observed only at very low levels of 25-OHD, suggesting that AA male skeleton is relatively resistant to the effects of secondary hyperparathyroidism.

Keywords

African American men Low bone mass Vitamin D insufficiency 

Notes

Conflicts of interest

None.

References

  1. 1.
    Holick MF (2007) Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 357:266–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC et al (2006) Estimates of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 84:18–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Holick MF (2006) High prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and implications for health. Mayo Clin Proc 81:353–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Holick MF, Siris ES, Binkley N et al (2005) Prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy among postmenopausal North American women receiving osteoporosis therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3215–3224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lappe JM, Davies KM, Travers-Gustafson D et al (2006) Vitamin D status in a rural postmenopausal female population. J Am Coll Nutr 25:395–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zadshir A, Tareen N, Pan D et al (2005) The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among US adults: data from the NHANES III. Ethn Dis 15(4 Suppl 5):S5–97–S5-101Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dietrich T, Orav EJ et al (2004) Positive association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and bone mineral density: a population-based study of younger and older adults. Am J Med 1(116):634–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hannan MT, Litman HJ, Araujo AB et al (2008) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone mineral density in a racially and ethnically diverse group of men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:40–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Looker AC, Wahner HW, Dunn WL et al (1998) Updated data on proximal femur bone mineral levels of US adults. Osteoporos Int 8:468–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bell NH, Gordon L, Stevens J et al (1995) Demonstration that bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, trochanter, and femoral neck is higher in black than in white young men. Calcif Tissue Int 56:11–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sinnott B, Kukreja S, Barengolts E (2006) Utility of screening tools for the prediction of low bone mass in African American Men. Osteoporos Int 17:684–692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ersfeld DL, Rao DS, Body JS et al (2004) Analytical and clinical validation of the 25- hydroxyvitamin D assay for the LIAISON automated analyzer. Clinical Biochem 37:867–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guardia G, Parikh N, Eskridge T et al (2008) Prevalence of vitamin D depletion among subjects seeking advice on osteoporosis: a five year cross-sectional study with public health implications. Osteoporosis Intl 19:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Barrett JA, Baron JA, Karagas MR et al (1999) Fracture risk in the U.S medicare population. J Clin Epidemiol  52:243–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Looker AC, Orwoll ES, Johnston CC Jr et al (1997) Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older U.S adults from NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res 12:1761–1768PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Parisien M, Cosman F, Morgan D et al (1997) Histomorphometric assessment of bone mass, structure and remodeling: a comparison between healthy black and white postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 12:948–957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cosman F, Shen V, Morgan D et al (2000) Biochemical responses of bone metabolism to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D administration in black and white women. Osteoporos Int 11:271–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cosman F, Morgan DC, Nieves JW et al (1997) Resistance to bone resorbing effects of PTH in black women. J Bone Miner Res 12:958–966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Krall EA, Sahyoun N, Tannenbaum S et al (1989) Effect of vitamin D intake on seasonal variations in parathyroid hormone secretion in post menopausal women. N Engl J Med 321:1777–1783PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB et al (2005) Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 293:2257–2264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Harris SS (2006) Vitamin D and African Americans. Symposium: optimizing vitamin D intake for populations with special needs: barriers to effective food fortification and supplementation. J Nutr 136:1126–1228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Harris SS, Soteriades E, Dawson-Hughes (2001) Framingham Heart Study; Boston Low Income Elderly Osteoporosis Study. Secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone turnover in elderly blacks and whites. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:3801–3804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Heaney RP (2004) Functional indices of vitamin D status and ramifications of vitamin D deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 80:1706S–1709SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dawson Hughes B (2004) Racial/ethnic considerations in making recommendations for vitamin D for adult and elderly men and women. Am J of Clin Nutr 80:1763S–1766SGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kyriakidou-Himonas M, Aloia JF, Yeh JK (1999) Vitamin D supplementation in postmenopausal black women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:3988–3990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Aloia JF, Talwar SA, Pollacj S et al (2005) A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D3 supplementation in African American Women. Arch Intern Med 165:1618–1623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Akhter
    • 1
    • 2
  • B. Sinnott
    • 2
  • K. Mahmood
    • 2
  • S. Rao
    • 3
  • S. Kukreja
    • 1
    • 2
  • E. Barengolts
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Section of EndocrinologyJesse Brown VA Medical CenterChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Section of EndocrinologyUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Bone Mineral ResearchHenry Ford HospitalDetroitUSA

Personalised recommendations