Maintenance of exercise-induced benefits in physical functioning and bone among elderly women
- 637 Downloads
This study showed that about a half of the exercise-induced gain in dynamic balance and bone strength was maintained one year after cessation of the supervised high-intensity training of home-dwelling elderly women. However, to maintain exercise-induced gains in lower limb muscle force and physical functioning, continued training seems necessary.
Maintenance of exercise-induced benefits in physical functioning and bone structure was assessed one year after cessation of 12-month randomized controlled exercise intervention.
Originally 149 healthy women 70–78 years of age participated in the 12-month exercise RCT and 120 (81%) of them completed the follow-up study. Self-rated physical functioning, dynamic balance, leg extensor force, and bone structure were assessed.
During the intervention, exercise increased dynamic balance by 7% in the combination resistance and balance-jumping training group (COMB). At the follow-up, a 4% (95% CI: 1–8%) gain compared with the controls was still seen, while the exercise-induced isometric leg extension force and self-rated physical functioning benefits had disappeared. During the intervention, at least twice a week trained COMB subjects obtained a significant 2% benefit in tibial shaft bone strength index compared to the controls. A half of this benefit seemed to be maintained at the follow-up.
Exercise-induced benefits in dynamic balance and rigidity in the tibial shaft may partly be maintained one year after cessation of a supervised 12-month multi-component training in initially healthy elderly women. However, to maintain the achieved gains in muscle force and physical functioning, continued training seems necessary.
KeywordsBalance training Bone strength Maintenance Physical functioning Osteoporosis Strength training
- 5.Gillespie LD, Gillespie WJ, Robertson MC et al. (2003) Interventions for preventing falls in elderly people. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 4Google Scholar
- 6.Bonaiuti D, Shea B, Iovine R et al. (2002) Exercise for preventing and treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2Google Scholar
- 13.Kontulainen S, Heinonen A, Kannus P et al. (2004) Former exercisers of an 18-month intervention display residual aBMD benefits compared with control women 3.5 years post-intervention: a follow-up of a randomized controlled high-impact trial. 15:248–251Google Scholar
- 15.Liu-Ambrose TY, Khan KM, Eng JJ et al (2005) The beneficial effects of group-based exercises on fall risk profile and physical activity persist 1 year postintervention in older women with low bone mass: Follow-up after withdrawal of exercise. J Am Geriatr Soc 53:1767–1773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Heinonen A, Sievänen H, Viitasalo J et al (1994) Reproducibility of computer measurement of maximal isometric strength and electromyography in sedentary middle-aged women. Eur J Appl Physiol 348:1343–1347Google Scholar
- 22.Aalto AM, Aro AR, Teperi J (1999) Rand-36 as a measure of health-related quality of life. Reliability, construct validity and reference values in the Finnish general population. (In Finnish with an English summary) Research Reports, The National Research and Development Center for Welfare and Health (STAKES), Helsinki, Finland, vol 101Google Scholar
- 34.Porter MM, Nelson ME, Fiatarone Singh MA et al (2002) Effects of long-term resistance training and detraining on strength and physical activity in older women. J Aging Phys Act 10:260–720Google Scholar
- 35.Trappe S, Williamson D, Godard M (2002) Maintenance of whole muscle strength and size following resistance training in older men. J Gerontol Biol Sci Med Sci 57A:B138–B143Google Scholar
- 36.Karlsson MK (2003) The skeleton in long-term perspective - Are exercise induced benefits eroded by time? J Musculoskel Neuron Interact 3:348–351Google Scholar