Relationship between grip strength and bone mineral density in healthy Hong Kong adolescents
This study evaluated the magnitude of the correlations among grip strength, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), after controlling for weight, height, pubertal development, weight-bearing activities and calcium intake. The results lead to the conclusion that grip strength is an independent predictor of bone mass in both sexes. The relationship between muscle strength and bone mass is systemic.
Previous studies had shown a site-specific relationship between muscle strength and bone in pubertal children. This study evaluated the magnitude of the correlations among grip strength, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at distant bone.
Cross-sectional data of 169 11- to 12-year-old boys and 173 10- to 11-year-old girls came from the baseline result of a cohort study. Grip strength, BMD, BMC, weight, height, pubertal development, weight-bearing activities and calcium intake were measured. Pearson correlations and multiple regressions were used to calculate univariate and adjusted associations among grip strength and bone mass at distant bone.
Significant correlations were shown between grip strength and bone mass at hip, spine and whole body (boys: BMC:0.72–0.74, BMD:0.38–0.60; girls: BMC:0.71–0.72, BMD:0.44–0.63; p<0.0001). Multiple regressions with all covariates showed that about 70% and 50%, respectively, of the variations in BMC and BMD could be explained but not for whole body BMD. Grip strength was an independent predictor of bone mass, except hip BMD in boys and whole body BMD in girls. Stepwise regression showed that grip strength was a robust predictor in both sexes. Prediction models by grip strength and weight explained about 60% and 40% of the variations in BMC of different sites and in BMD of hip and spine, respectively.
We found that grip strength is an independent predictor of bone mass in both sexes. The relationship between muscle strength and bone mass is systemic.
KeywordsAdolescents Bone mineral density Grip strength Hong Kong
- 4.Ozgocmen S, Karaoglan B, Cimen OB, Yorgancioglu ZR (2000) Relation between grip strength and hand bone mineral density in healthy women aged 30–70. Singap Med J 41(6):268–270Google Scholar
- 8.Sahin G, Duce MN, Milcan A, Bagis S, Cimen OB, Cimen B, Erdogan C (2002) Bone mineral density and grip strength in postmenopausal Turkish women with osteoporosis: site specific or systemic? Int J Fert Women’s Med 47(5):236–239Google Scholar
- 9.Dixon WG, Lunt M, Pye SR, Reeve J, Felsenberg D, Silman AJ, O’Neill TW (2005) European Prospective Osteoporosis Study Group. Low grip strength is associated with bone mineral density and vertebral fracture in women. Rheumatology 44(5):642–646Google Scholar
- 18.Kemper HCG, Twisk JWR, Van Mechelen W, Post GB, Roos JC, Lips P (2000) A fifteen-year longitudinal study in young adults on the relation of physical activity and fitness with the development of the bone mass: the Amsterdam growth and health longitudinal study. Bone 27(6):847–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Cadogan J, Eastell R, Jones N, Barker M (1997) Milk intake and bone mineral acquisition in adolescent girls: randomised, controlled intervention trial. BMJ. Br Med J 315:1225–1260Google Scholar
- 31.Spijkerman DCM, Snijders CJ, Stijnen T, Lankhorst GJ (1991) Standardization of grip strength measurements. Scand J Rehab Med 23:203–206Google Scholar
- 32.Tanner JM (1978) Physical growth and development. In: Forfar JO, Arnell CC (eds) Textbook of Pediatrics. 2nd edn. Churchill LivingStone, Scotland, pp 249–303Google Scholar
- 35.Lee WTK, Cheung CSK, Tse YK, Guo X, Qin L, Ho SC, Lau J, Cheng JCY (2005) Generalized low bone mass of girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is related to inadequate calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity in peripubertal period. Osteoporos Int 16:1024–1035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, China CDC (2002) China Food Composition. Peking University Medical PressGoogle Scholar
- 37.Groothausen J, Siemer H, Kemper HCG, Twisk J, Welten DC (1997) Influence of peak strain on lumbar bone mineral density: An analysis of 15-year physical activity in young males and females. Pediatr Exerc Sci 9:159–173Google Scholar
- 38.Van Langendonck L, Lefevre J, Claessens AL, Thomis M, Philippaerts R, Delvaux K, Lysens R, Renson R, Vanreusel B, Vanden Eynde B, Dequeker J, Beunen G (2003) Influence of participation in high-impact sports during adolescence and adulthood on bone mineral density in middle-aged men: a 27-year follow-up study. Am J Epidemiol 158(6):525–533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 45.Chinese Nutrition Society (2000) The Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)Google Scholar