Osteoporosis International

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 329–337 | Cite as

Bisphosphonates alter trabecular bone collagen cross-linking and isomerization in beagle dog vertebra

  • M. R. Allen
  • E. Gineyts
  • D. J. Leeming
  • D. B. Burr
  • P. D. Delmas
Original Article



Changes in organic matrix may contribute to the anti-fracture efficacy of anti-remodeling agents. Following one year of treatment in beagle dogs, bisphosphonates alter the organic matrix of vertebral trabecular bone, while raloxifene had no effect. These results show that pharmacological suppression of turnover alters the organic matrix component of bone.


The collagen matrix contributes significantly to a bone’s fracture resistance yet the effects of anti-remodeling agents on collagen properties are unclear. The goal of this study was to assess changes in collagen cross-linking and isomerization following anti-remodeling treatment.


Skeletally mature female beagles were treated for one year with oral doses of vehicle (VEH), risedronate (RIS; 3 doses), alendronate (ALN; 3 doses), or raloxifene (RAL; 2 doses). The middle dose of RIS and ALN and the lower dose of RAL approximate doses used for treatment of post menopausal osteoporosis. Vertebral trabecular bone matrix was assessed for collagen isomerization (ratio of α/β C-telopeptide [CTX]), enzymatic (pyridinoline [PYD] and deoxypyridinoline [DPD]), and non-enzymatic (pentosidine [PEN]) cross-links.


All doses of both RIS and ALN increased PEN (+34–58%) and the ratio of PYD/DPD (+14–26%), and decreased the ratio of α/β CTX (−29–56%) compared to VEH. RAL did not alter any collagen parameters. Bone turnover rate was significantly correlated to PEN (R = −0.664), α/β CTX (R = 0.586), and PYD/DPD (R = −0.470).


Bisphosphonate treatment significantly alters properties of bone collagen suggesting a contribution of the organic matrix to the anti-fracture efficacy of this drug class.


Alendronate Anti-remodeling Bone markers Pentosidine Raloxifene Risedronate 



The authors thank Dr. Keith Condon, Diana Jacob, Mary Hooser, and Lauren Waugh for histological preparation. This work was supported by NIH Grants AR047838 and AR007581 and research grants from The Alliance for Better Bone Health (Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals and sanofi-aventis), and Lilly Research Laboratories, as well as an unrestricted grant from Eli Lilly to INSERM. Merck and Co. kindly provided the alendronate. This investigation utilized an animal facility constructed with support from Research Facilities Improvement Program Grant Number C06 RR10601-01 from the National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health.

Conflict of interest statement

Matthew R. Allen has current research funding from Eli Lilly, Amgen, and the Alliance for Better Bone Health.

Diana Julie Leeming is a full-time employee of Nordic Bioscience.

David B. Burr has research funding from the Alliance for Better Bone Health, Eli Lilly and Co., and Amgen. He serves as a consultant and speaker for Procter and Gamble Pharmaceuticals and for Eli Lilly and Company.


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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. R. Allen
    • 1
  • E. Gineyts
    • 4
  • D. J. Leeming
    • 5
  • D. B. Burr
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • P. D. Delmas
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, MS 5035Indiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical EngineeringIndiana University-Purdue University at IndianapolisIndianapolisUSA
  4. 4.INSERM Unit 403 and Université Claude Bernard Lyon1LyonFrance
  5. 5.Nordic Bioscience DiagnosticsHerlevDenmark

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