Excess mortality following hip fracture: the role of underlying health status
- 447 Downloads
We evaluated the long-term excess mortality associated with hip fracture, using prospectively collected data on pre-fracture health and function from a nationally representative sample of U.S. elders. Although mortality was elevated for the first six months following hip fracture, we found no evidence of long-term excess mortality.
The long-term excess mortality associated with hip fracture remains controversial.
To assess the association between hip fracture and mortality, we used prospectively collected data on pre-fracture health and function from a representative sample of U.S. elders in the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) to perform survival analyses with time-varying covariates.
Among 25,178 MCBS participants followed for a median duration of 3.8 years, 730 sustained a hip fracture during follow-up. Both early (within 6 months) and subsequent mortality showed significant elevations in models adjusted only for age, sex and race. With additional adjustment for pre-fracture health status, functional impairments, comorbid conditions and socioeconomic status, however, increased mortality was limited to the first six months after fracture (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.28, 95% CI: 4.82, 8.19). No increased mortality was evident during subsequent follow-up (HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.23). Hip-fracture-attributable population mortality ranged from 0.5% at age 65 among men to 6% at age 85 among women.
Hip fracture was associated with substantially increased mortality, but much of the short-term risk and all of the long-term risk was explained by the greater frailty of those experiencing hip fracture.
KeywordsAttributable risk Hip fracture Mortality Osteoporosis
This study was supported by NIH grant AG12262, U.S. Public Health Service. The authors thank Ms. Loretta Pearson for editorial assistance and a comprehensive literature review and Ms. Margaret Grove for assistance with figure preparation.
- 2.Vanness D, Tosteson, A (2005) Estimating the opportunity costs of osteoporosis in the United States. Topics Geriatric Rehab 21:4–16Google Scholar
- 3.Office of the Surgeon General (2004) Bone health and osteoporosis: A report of the surgeon general. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MDGoogle Scholar
- 19.Poor G, Atkinson EJ, O’Fallon WM, Melton LJ 3rd (1995) Determinants of reduced survival following hip fractures in men. Clin Orthop Relat Res 260–265Google Scholar
- 20.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS). Available at http://www.cms.hhs.gov/MCBS/ (21 Sept. 2006)
- 24.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Appendix A. Technical Documentation for the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. 2006. Available at http://www.cms.hhs.gov/MCBS/Downloads/HHC_1994_appendixA.pdf
- 27.Arias E (2004) United States life tables, 2001. In National vital statistics reports. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MDGoogle Scholar
- 38.Cornwall R, Gilbert MS, Koval KJ, Strauss E, Siu AL (2004) Functional outcomes and mortality vary among different types of hip fractures: a function of patient characteristics. Clin Orthop Relat Res 64–71Google Scholar