Osteoporosis International

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 123–128 | Cite as

The periosteum—a surface for all seasons

Hot Stuff

References

  1. 1.
    Murray PDF, Huxley JS (1925) Self-differentiation in the grafted limb bud of the chick. J Anatomy 59:379–384Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Frost HM (1964) The laws of bone structure. CC Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Parfitt AM, Mathews CHE, Villanueva AR, Kleerehoper M, Frame B, Rao DS (1983) Relationship between surface, volume and thickness of iliac trabecular bone in aging and in osteoporosis: implications for the microanatomic and cellular mechanism of bone loss. J Clin Invest 72:1396–1409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Parfitt AM (1996) Skeletal heterogeneity and the purposes of bone remodelling: implications for the understanding of osteoporosis. In: Marcus R, Feldman D, Kelsey J (eds) Osteoporosis. Academic, San Diego, CA, pp 315–339Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Seeman E, Delmas PD (2006) Bone quality: the material and structure basis of bone strength and fragility. NEJM 354:2250–2261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ruff CB, Hayes WC (1988) Sex differences in age-related remodelling of the femur and tibia. J Orthop Res 6:886–896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gilsanz V, Roe TF, Stefano M, Costen G, Goodman WG (1991) Changes in vertebral bone density in black girls and white girls during childhood and puberty. New Engl J Med 325:1597–1600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Han Z-H, Palnitkar S, Rao DS, Nelson D, Parfitt AM (1996) Effect of ethnicity and age or menopause on the structure and geometry of iliac bone. J Bone Miner Res 11:1967–1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Han Z-H, Palnitkar S, Rao DS, Nelson D, Parfitt AM (1997) Effects of ethnicity and age or menopause on the remodeling and turnover of iliac bone: implications for mechanisms of bone loss. J Bone Miner Res 12:498–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Seeman E (1997) From density to structure: growing up and growing old on the surfaces of bone. J Bone Miner Res 12:509–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Haapasalo H, Kontulainen S, Sievanen H, Kannus P, Jarvinen M, Vuori I (2000) Exercise-induced bone gain is due to enlargement in bone size without a change in volumetric bone density: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography study of the upper arms of male tennis players. Bone 27:351–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Meredith HV (1978) Secular change in sitting height and lower limb height of children, youths, and young adults of Afro-black, European, and Japanese ancestry. Growth 42:37–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Malina RM, Brown KH (1987) Relative lower extremity length in Mexican American and in American black and white youth. Am J Phys Anthropol72:89–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cameron N, Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH (1982) A longitudinal analysis of the growth of limb segments in adolescence. Ann Human Biol 9:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tanner JM, Hayashi T, Preece MA, Cameron N (1982) Increase in length of leg relative to trunk in Japanese children and adults from 1957 to 1977: comparison with British and with Japanese Americans. Annals Human Biol 9:411–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bakwin H (1964) Secular increase in height: is the end in sight? Lancet 2:1195–1196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Balena R, Shih MS, Parfitt AM (1992) Bone resorption and formation on the periosteal envelope of the ilium: a histomorphometric study in healthy women. J Bone Miner Res 7:1475–1482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Szulc P, Seeman E, Duboeuf F, Sornay-Rendu E, Delmas PD. Bone fragility: failure of periosteal apposition to compensate for increased endocortical resorption in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 2006 (in press; PMID: 17002580)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Orwoll ES (2003) Toward an expanded understanding of the role of the periosteum in skeletal health. J Bone Mineral Res 18:949–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rauch F, Neu C, Manz F, Schoenau E (2001) The development of metaphyseal cortex-implications for distal rdius fractures during growth. J Bone Miner Res 16: 1547–1555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Blizoites M, Sibonga JD, Turner RT, Orwoll E (2006) Periosteal remodeling at the femoral neck in nonhuman primates. J Bone Miner Res 21:1060–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Iwata K, Li J, Follet H, Phipps RJ, Burr DB (2006) Bisphosphonates suppress periosteal osteoblast activity independently of resorption in rat femur and tibia. BoneGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Saxon LK, Turner CH (2006) Low-dose estrogen treatment suppresses periosteal bone formation in response to mechanical loading. Bone, Aug 23Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Albright F, Smith PH, Richardson AM (1941) Postmenopausal osteoporosis. JAMA 116:2465–2474Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Martin TJ, Seeman E. New mechanisms and targets in the treatment of bone fragility. Clinical Science (in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Austin HealthUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations