Osteoporosis International

, Volume 16, Issue 12, pp 1899–1906 | Cite as

High bone mineral density among perimenopausal women

  • Janne Pesonen
  • Joonas Sirola
  • Marjo Tuppurainen
  • Jukka Jurvelin
  • Esko Alhava
  • Risto Honkanen
  • Heikki Kr
Original Article


Studies regarding high bone mineral density (HBMD) are few. In the population-based Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Study, BMDs of women were measured from 1990–1991 and 1995–1997. The mean age of the 1,873 women studied was 53.5 years at baseline (range 48.0–59.6). In all, 248 women were excluded because of BMD measurement errors or artifacts: 41 from the HBMD group (20.6%) and 207 (12.4%) from the control group. The final study group consisted of 1,551 women, 168 in the HBMD group (baseline lumbar BMD >1.23 g/cm2; femoral BMD >1.01 g/cm2, and 5-year follow-up lumbar BMD >1.21 g/cm2; femoral BMD >0.98 g/cm2, respectively) and 1,383 in the control group. The predictors for HBMD in the multivariate regression analysis were as follows: hormone therapy (HT) during the follow-up from 0.5 to 2 years and for over 2 years (OR 2.06, CI: 1.11–3.81 and OR 2.16, CI 1.43–3.26) and being overweight (BMI from 25 kg/m2 to 30 kg/m2, and BMI >30 kg/m2) at baseline (OR 2.84, CI: 1.82–4.42; OR 5.94, CI: 3.47–10.16, respectively). High physical activity while 11–18 years of age was associated with HBMD (OR 1.69, CI: 1.17–2.45). Parity predicted HBMD so that after one to two births the OR was 2.66 (CI: 1.03–6.88) and 3.03 (CI: 1.16–7.90) after three or more births. Menopause was negatively associated with HBMD (OR 0.57, CI 0.38–0.85). There were more premenopausal women in the HBMD group (53.9 vs. 34.6%, P <0.001). The HBMD group showed fewer fractures. In conclusion, being overweight, parity, HT use, premenopause and high physical activity in adolescence seemed to be predictors for persistently high BMD in early postmenopausal women. We suggest that the fracture risk is low in these women, and thus they are neither primary candidates for BMD screening nor for osteoporosis medication.


BMI High BMD Hormone therapy Menopause Physical activity Population-based study 



This work was supported financially by the Eemil Aaltonen Foundation, University of Kuopio, Kuopio University Hospital and Finnish Medical Foundation. Special thanks to Mrs. Seija Oinonen and Dr. Lorenzo Sandini for technical support.


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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janne Pesonen
    • 1
  • Joonas Sirola
    • 1
    • 6
  • Marjo Tuppurainen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jukka Jurvelin
    • 4
    • 5
  • Esko Alhava
    • 3
  • Risto Honkanen
    • 1
  • Heikki Kr
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Bone and Cartilage Research Unit (BCRU)Clinical Research Center, University of KuopioKuopioFinland
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyKuopio University HospitalKuopioFinland
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryKuopio University HospitalKuopioFinland
  4. 4.Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear MedicineKuopio University HospitalKuopioFinland
  5. 5.Department of Applied PhysicsUniversity of KuopioKuopioFinland
  6. 6.Mikkeli Central HospitalDepartment of SurgeryMikkeliFinland

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