Association of quantitative heel ultrasound with history of osteoporotic fractures in elderly men: The ESOPO study
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In order to evaluate the usefulness of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in the assessment of male osteoporosis, a cross-sectional, population-based study was performed. A cohort of 4,832 men, randomly selected, community-dwelling, aged 60–80 years and representative of the general older male Italian population was recruited. QUS measurements were assessed in 83 centers distributed all over Italy and equipped with an Achilles device (GE-Lunar, Madison, Wisconsin, USA). All participants were administered a questionnaire covering lifestyle variables and medical history. Low-energy fractures that had occurred since age 50 were recorded. Overall, 43 subjects reported a previous hip fracture and 455 subjects reported other non-spinal fractures. Univariate analysis showed that fractured subjects were older, with a lower level of outdoor physical activity and a more frequent history of prolonged bedridden periods in comparison with unfractured subjects. Men reporting non-spinal fractures showed a higher prevalence of smoking, while no difference was found among groups in anthropometric measures and calcium intake. QUS measurements showed that all QUS parameters were significantly lower in both fracture groups ( p <0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that each SD reduction in QUS measures was associated with an approximate doubling of the risk for hip fracture, independent of age and other clinical variables (broadband ultrasound attenuation [BUA]: odds ratio [OR]=2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61–3.08; stiffness index: OR=2.19; CI 1.56–3.11; speed of sound [SOS]: OR=1.71; CI 1.18–3.24) and with an increase of the risk of other non-spinal fractures (BUA: 1.38; CI 1.22–1.59; stiffness index: OR=1.27; CI 1.17–1.38; SOS: OR=1.14; CI 0.96–1.40). It can be concluded that calcaneal QUS measurement is associated with the risk for hip fracture and any non-spinal fractures among a community-dwelling cohort of elderly men. The strength of the association between QUS measurement and fracture is similar to that observed in elderly women.