No effect of vitamin K1 intake on bone mineral density and fracture risk in perimenopausal women
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Vitamin K functions as a co-factor in the post-translational carboxylation of several bone proteins, including osteocalcin.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin K1 intake and bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk in a perimenopausal Danish population.
The study was performed within the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS), including a population-based cohort of 2,016 perimenopausal women. During the study approximately 50% of the women received hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Associations between vitamin K1 intake and BMD were assessed at baseline and after 5-years of follow-up (cross-sectional design). Moreover, associations between vitamin K1 intake and 5-year and 10-year changes in BMD were studied (follow-up design). Finally, fracture risk was assessed in relation to vitamin K1 intake (nested case–control design).
In our cohort, dietary vitamin K1 intake (60 μg/day) was close to the daily intake recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed no associations between intake of vitamin K1 and BMD of the femoral neck or lumbar spine. Neither did BMD differ between those 5% that had the highest vitamin K1 intake and those 5% that had the lowest. During the 10-years of follow-up, 360 subjects sustained a fracture (cases). In a comparison between the cases and 1,440 controls, logistic regression analyses revealed no difference in vitamin K1 intake between cases and controls.
In a group of perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women, vitamin K1 intake was not associated with effects on BMD or fracture risk.
KeywordsBone mineral density Fracture Osteoporosis Phylloquinone Vitamin K Women
The project was made possible by a grant from Karen Elise Jensen’s Foundation, Denmark. Drugs were provided free of charge by Novo Nordic, Denmark, Leo Pharmaceutical products A/S, Denmark, and Ciba Geigy, Denmark.
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