The effect of milk supplementation on bone mineral density in postmenopausal Chinese women in Malaysia
- 950 Downloads
Dietary studies often report low calcium intake amongst post-menopausal Malaysian women and calcium deficiency has been implicated as part of the etiology of age-related bone loss leading to osteoporosis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of high calcium skimmed milk (Anlene Gold™, New Zealand Milk, Wellington, New Zealand) to reduce bone loss in Chinese postmenopausal women. Two hundred subjects aged 55–65 years and who were more than 5 years postmenopausal were randomized to a milk group and control group. The milk group consumed 50 g of high calcium skimmed milk powder daily, which contained 1200 mg calcium (taken as two glasses of milk a day). The control group continued with their usual diet. Using repeated measures ANCOVA, the milk supplement was found to significantly reduce the percentage of bone loss at the total body compared to the control group at 24 months (control −1.04%, milk −0.13%; P<0.001). At the lumbar spine, the percentage of bone loss in the control group was significantly higher (−0.90%) when compared to the milk (−0.13%) supplemented group at 24 months (P<0.05). Similarly, milk supplementation reduced the percentage of bone loss at the femoral neck (control −1.21%, milk 0.51%) (P<0.01) and total hip (control −2.17%, milk −0.50%) (P<0.01). The supplemented group did not experience any significant weight gain over the 24 months. The serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level improved significantly (P<0.01) from 69.1±16.1 nmol/l at baseline to 86.4±22.0 nmol/l at 24 months in the milk group. In conclusion, ingestion of high calcium skimmed milk was effective in reducing the rate of bone loss at clinically important lumbar spine and hip sites in postmenopausal Chinese women in Malaysia. Supplementing with milk had additional benefits of improving the serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D status of the subjects.
KeywordsBone mineral density Calcium Milk supplementation Parathyroid hormone Postmenopausal Malaysian women Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D
We are grateful to Professor Najib and Mr. Karuthan Chinna for assisting with the statistical analyses and Professor Ian Reid for his comments on the manuscript. The study was funded by New Zealand Milk.
- 2.Anon (2001) Malaysian clinical practice guidelines on management of osteoporosis. Malaysian Osteoporosis SocietyGoogle Scholar
- 3.Department of Statistics (2000) Yearbook of statistics Malaysia. National Printing Department, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
- 4.Tee ES (1999) Nutrition of Malaysians: where are we heading? Malay J Nutr 5:87–109Google Scholar
- 6.Ismail MN (1992) Malnutrition and food consumption pattern in Malaysians. Int J Food Sci Nutr 43:69–78Google Scholar
- 7.Chee SS, Ismail MN, Ng KK, Zawiah H (1997) Food intake assesment of adults in rural and urban areas. Malay J Nutr 3:91–102Google Scholar
- 12.National Coordinating Committee on Food and Nutrition (1997) Malaysian dietary guidelines. Ministry of Health, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
- 13.Tee ES, Ismail MN, Mohd Nasir A, Khatijah I (2000) Nutrient Composition of Malaysian foods. ASEAN Food Habit Project, National Subcommittee on Protein: Food Habits Research and Development, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
- 14.Baran D, Sorensen A, Grimes J et al. (1989) Dietary modification with dairy products for preventing vertebral bone loss in premenopausal women: a three-year prospective study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 70:264–270Google Scholar
- 15.Storm D, Eslin R, Porter ES et al. (1998) Calcium supplementation prevents seasonal bone loss and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover in elderly New England women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:3817–3825Google Scholar