Shock Waves

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 23–30 | Cite as

The delivery of particulate vaccines and drugs to human skin with a practical, hand-held shock tube-based system

  • M.A.F. Kendall
Original article


A unique form of powdered vaccine and drug delivery has been developed. The principle behind the concept is to accelerate vaccine and drug particles, using a gas flow, so that they attain sufficient velocities to enter the skin and achieve a pharmaceutical effect. This paper presents the Contoured Shock Tube (CST), configured to deliver particles to the skin with a narrow and controlled velocity distribution and uniform spatial distribution. The gas and particle flows of a prototype CST are explored experimentally and compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations. Some key steps in converting the prototype into a practical hand-held vaccine and drug delivery system are discussed. The ability of this system to deliver particles to the skin is illustrated by sample penetration data into excised human tissue.

Key words: Drugs, Vaccines, Shock tube, Shock waves, Gas-particle dynamics, Particle acceleration, Biolistics 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • M.A.F. Kendall
    • 1
  1. 1.The PowderJect Centre for Gene and Drug Delivery Research, University of Oxford, 43 Banbury Rd Oxford, OX2 6PE, UK (e-mail: GB

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