Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Effect of duct aspect ratio on normal shock wave/boundary layer interaction


Experiments have been conducted in a supersonic rectangular duct (Mach 1.4), with a normal shock wave/boundary layer interaction. The duct is designed in a modular fashion so that its aspect ratio can be varied without a change in the flow geometry. The shock location, duct height, and Mach number are kept constant, while varying the aspect ratio. Conventional and inclined schlieren techniques have been used to visualize the normal shock. The height and width of the “normal part” of the normal shock have been measured. A parameter termed area fraction of the normal shock is used to quantify the extent of shock bifurcation, and the effect of the duct aspect ratio on this parameter is studied. It has been found that a nearly square duct is the preferred geometry for maximizing the area fraction of the normal shock.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7


  1. 1.

    Mattingly, J.D.: Elements of Propulsion: Gas Turbines and Rockets. AIAA Education Series (2006).

  2. 2.

    Seddon, J., Goldsmith, E.L.: Intake Aerodynamics, 2nd edn. Blackwell Science, Boston (1999)

  3. 3.

    Babinsky, H., Harvey, J.K.: Shock Wave–Boundary-Layer Interactions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2011).

  4. 4.

    Matsuo, K., Miyazato, Y., Kim, H.D.: Shock train and pseudo-shock phenomena in internal gas flows. Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 35, 33–100 (1999).

  5. 5.

    Sajben, M., Morris, M.J., Bogar, T.J., Kroutil, J.C.: Confined normal-shock/turbulent-boundary-layer interaction followed by an adverse pressure gradient. AIAA J. 29(12), 2115–2123 (1991).

  6. 6.

    Delery, J.M.: Shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction and its control. Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 22, 209–280 (1985).

  7. 7.

    Bruce, P.J.K., Burton, D.M.F., Titchener, N.A., Babinsky, H.: Corner effect and separation in transonic channel flows. J. Fluid Mech. 679, 247–262 (2011).

  8. 8.

    Papamoschou, D., Zill, A., Johnson, A.: Supersonic flow separation in planar nozzles. Shock Waves 19, 171–183 (2009).

  9. 9.

    Vaisakh, S., Muruganandam, T.M.: Influence of multi-wall separation control on normal-shock-induced separation in supersonic duct flows. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part G J. Aerosp. Eng. 233(9), 3184–3192 (2019).

  10. 10.

    Vaisakh, S., Muruganandam, T.M.: Schlieren measurement of ‘normal-spanwise length’ of a bifurcated normal shock wave in a rectangular duct. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 96, 43–47 (2018).

  11. 11.

    Burton, D.M.F., Babinsky, H.: Corner separation effects for normal shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions in rectangular channels. J. Fluid Mech. 707, 287–306 (2012).

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to S. Vaisakh.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Communicated by S. O'Byrne and A. Higgins.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Vaisakh, S., Namratha, P.R. & Muruganandam, T.M. Effect of duct aspect ratio on normal shock wave/boundary layer interaction. Shock Waves 30, 215–219 (2020).

Download citation


  • Supersonic flow
  • Shock wave/boundary layer interaction
  • Duct flow
  • Duct aspect ratio
  • Boundary layer separation