Shock Waves

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 361–364 | Cite as

Liquid-surface entrainment induced by shocked air stream

  • V. RodriguezEmail author
  • G. Jourdan
  • A. Marty
  • A. Allou
  • J.-D. Parisse
Technical Note


Recently, we experimentally studied, in a shock tube environment, shock waves propagating over horizontal free water layers having depths of 10, 20, and 30 mm for shock wave Mach numbers \(M_\mathrm {is}\) equal to 1.1 and 1.4. The qualitative interaction process was observed by means of high-speed visualizations, and the pressures arising in the air and in the water layer were measured and interpreted in terms of the various incident and refracted shock waves in air and water; in particular, it was concluded that the compression wave in the water is driven by the planar shock wave in the air. Additional experiments have been conducted and the novel contributions of the present technical note are quantitative results regarding the liquid-surface entrainment. At low Mach number (\(M_\mathrm {is}=1.1\)), we show that the velocity of the droplets ejected into the air is independent of the water depth, unlike the wavelength of initial ripples and the angle of ejection. When the shock wave strength increases (\(M_\mathrm {is}=1.4\)), the dispersion of a very thin droplet mist and a single large wave take place. We show that the thickening of the water mist and the velocity of the subsequent large wave decreases with the water-layer depth.


Experiments Shock wave Air–water interface Droplet dispersion 



This work is supported by CEA Cadarache under Contract #4000649074 CJN-001.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IUSTI, UMR CNRS 7343Aix-Marseille UniversitéMarseilleFrance
  2. 2.Institut Pprime, UPR CNRS 3346, ENSMAFuturoscope-Chasseneuil CedexFrance
  3. 3.CEA, DEN, Cadarache, DTN/STCP/LTRSSaint Paul lez Durance CedexFrance
  4. 4.French Air Force Academy, Salon de Provence, BA701Salon AirFrance

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