Thrust shock vector control of an axisymmetric conical supersonic nozzle via secondary transverse gas injection

  • 631 Accesses

  • 16 Citations


Transverse secondary gas injection into the supersonic flow of an axisymmetric convergent–divergent nozzle is investigated to describe the effects of the fluidic thrust vectoring within the framework of a small satellite launcher. Cold-flow dry-air experiments are performed in a supersonic wind tunnel using two identical supersonic conical nozzles with the different transverse injection port positions. The complex three-dimensional flow field generated by the supersonic cross-flows in these test nozzles was examined. Valuable experimental data were confronted and compared with the results obtained from the numerical simulations. Different nozzle models are numerically simulated under experimental conditions and then further investigated to determine which parameters significantly affect thrust vectoring. Effects which characterize the nozzle and thrust vectoring performances are established. The results indicate that with moderate secondary to primary mass flow rate ratios, ranging around 5 %, it is possible to achieve pertinent vector side forces. It is also revealed that injector positioning and geometry have a strong effect on the shock vector control system and nozzle performances.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23


  1. 1.

    Mangin, B., Chpoun, A., Jacquin, L.: Experimental and numerical study of the fluidic thrust vectoring of a two-dimensional supersonic nozzle. AIAA Paper 2006-3666 (2006)

  2. 2.

    Wing, D.J., Giuliano, V.J.: Fluidic thrust vectoring of an axisymmetric exhaust nozzle at static conditions. ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, Paper FEDSM97-3228 (1997)

  3. 3.

    Bec, R., Bernard-Lepine, C., de Groote, K., Amouroux, F.: PERSEUS. A Nanosatellite Launch System Project Focusing on Innovation and Education. 2nd European Conference for Aerospace Sciences(EUCASS), Brussels (2007)

  4. 4.

    Wing, D.J.: Static investigation of two fluidic thrust-vectoring concepts on a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. NASA Technical Memorandum TM4574, Hampton Virginia (1994)

  5. 5.

    Flamm, J.D., Deere, K.A., Mason, M.L., Berrier, B.L., Johnson, S.K.: Experimental study of an axisymmetric dual throat fluidic thrust vectoring nozzle for supersonic aircraft application. AIAA Paper 2007-5084 (2007)

  6. 6.

    Flamm, J.D.: Experimental study of a nozzle using fluidic counterflow for thrust vectoring. AIAA Paper 98-3255 (1998)

  7. 7.

    Deere, K.A.: Summary of fluidic thrust vectoring research conducted at NASA Langley research center. AIAA Paper 2003-3802 (2003)

  8. 8.

    Deere, K.A., Berrier, B.L., Flamm, J.D.: Computational study of fluidic thrust vectoring using separation control in a nozzle. AIAA Paper 2003-3803 (2003)

  9. 9.

    Viti, V., Neel, R., Schetz, J.A.: Detailed flow physics of the supersonic jet interaction flow field. Phys. Fluids J. 21(4), 046101-1–16 (2009)

  10. 10.

    Spaid, F.W., Zukoski, E.E.: Study of the interaction of gaseous jets from transverse slots with supersonic external flows. AIAA J. 6(2), 205–212 (1968)

  11. 11.

    Guhse, R.D.: On secondary gas injections into supersonic nozzles. AIAA J. 3(1), 147–149 (1966)

  12. 12.

    Schetz, J.A., Billig, F.S.: Penetration of gaseous jets injected into a supersonic stream. J. Spacecr. Rockets 3(11), 1658–1665 (1966)

  13. 13.

    Zukoski, E.E.: Turbulent boundary-layer separation in front of a forward-facing step. AIAA J. 5(10), 1746–1753 (1967)

  14. 14.

    Chenault, C.F., Beran, P.S.: \(k-\epsilon \) and Reynolds stress turbulence model comparisions fow two-dimensional flows. AIAA J. 36(8), 1401–1412 (1998)

  15. 15.

    Santiago, J.G., Dutton, J.: Crossflow vortices of a jet injected into a supersonic crossflow. AIAA J. 35(5), 915–917 (1997)

  16. 16.

    Erinc, E., Kontis, K.: Numerical and experimental investigation of transverse injection flows. Shock Waves J. 20(2), 103–118 (2010)

  17. 17.

    Nielson, J.H., Gilchrist, A., Lee, C.K.: Side thrust control by secondary gas injection into rocket nozzles. J. Mech. Eng. Sci. 10(3), 239–251 (1968)

  18. 18.

    Billig, F.S.: Shock-wave shapes around spherical and cylindrical-nosed bodies. J. Spacecr. Rockets 4(6), 822–823 (1967)

  19. 19.

    Schilling, T.W.: Flow separation in rocket nozzles. M.Sci. thesis, University of Buffalo, New York (1962)

  20. 20.

    Green, L.: Flow separation in rocket nozzles. ARS J. 23(1), 34–35 (1953)

  21. 21.

    Maarouf N.: Model of dissymmetrical phenomena in the divergent of supersonic propulsive nozzles. PhD thesis (in French), Universite d’Evry Val d’Essone (2008)

  22. 22.

    Sellam, M., Chpoun, A., Zmijanovic, V., Lago, V.: Fluidic thrust vectoring of an axisymmetrical nozzle: an analytical model. Int. J. Aerodyn. 2(2–4), 193–209 (2012)

  23. 23.

    Durand, P., Vieille, B., Lambare, H., Vuillermoz P., Boure G., Steinfeld P., Godfroy, F., Guery, J.F.: CPS: A three-dimensional CFD numerical code dedicated to space propulsive flows. AIAA Paper A00-36973 (3864) (2000)

  24. 24.

    Boccaletto, L., Cahuzac, F.: Solving the flow separation issue : a new nozzle noncept. AIAA Paper 2008-5234 (2008)

  25. 25.

    Boccaletto, L., Lequette, L.: CFD computations for rocket engines start-up simulation. AIAA Paper 2005-4438 (2005)

  26. 26.

    Nielson, J.H., Gilchrist, A., Lee, C.K.: Control forces in rocket nozzles produced by a secondary gas stream inclined at various angles to the nozzle axis. J. Mech. Eng. Sci. 11(2), 175–180 (1969)

  27. 27.

    Schlichting, H., Gersten, K.: Boundary Layer Theory. Springer, Berlin (2001)

Download references


We would like to acknowledge support and assistance by Sandrine Palerm and Jean Oswald from the French space agency CNES, DLA department, as well as Luc Leger and Eric Depussay from CNRS-ICARE.

Author information

Correspondence to V. Zmijanovic.

Additional information

The paper was based on work that was presented at the 28th International Symposium on Shock Waves, 17–22 July, 2011, Manchester, UK.

Communicated by A. Hadjadj and K. Kontis.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Zmijanovic, V., Lago, V., Sellam, M. et al. Thrust shock vector control of an axisymmetric conical supersonic nozzle via secondary transverse gas injection. Shock Waves 24, 97–111 (2014).

Download citation


  • Thrust
  • Shock vector
  • Fluidic control
  • Nozzle
  • Supersonic
  • Cross-flow
  • Secondary injection