Shock Waves

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 59–67 | Cite as

Supersonic aerodynamic performance of truncated cones with repetitive laser pulse energy depositions

Original Article

Abstract

We investigate the drag characteristics of truncated cones in Mach 1.94 flow with repetitive laser pulse energy depositions with a frequency of up to 80 kHz. The drag decrement is almost in proportion to the laser pulse repetition frequency, and scales with a greater-than-square power of the truncation diameter. The performance of the latter is associated with the effective area of pressure modulation and the effective residence time of vortices which are baroclinically generated after the interaction between laser-heated gas bubbles and the bow shock wave. With employing a concave head, the drag decrement is enhanced. With increasing the truncation diameter, the efficiency of energy deposition becomes higher; yet, within the operation range of this study the drag coefficient still remains high.

Keywords

Laser Drag Supersonic flow  Energy deposition Baroclinic effect 

List of symbols

\(a_\infty \)

Upstream speed of sound

\(C_\mathrm{D}\)

Drag coefficient

\(D\)

Drag

\(D_{0}\)

Baseline drag, drag without laser pulse

\(d\)

Base diameter of cylinder

\(d_\mathrm{b}\)

Diameter of laser-heated gas bubble

\(d_\mathrm{f}\)

Diameter of truncated head

\(E\)

Laser pulse energy incident onto test section

\(f\)

Laser pulse repetition frequency

\(M_\infty \)

Upstream Mach number

\(p_\mathrm{st}\)

Stagnation pressure

\(p_\mathrm{st,0}\)

Stagnation pressure without laser pulse

\(r\)

Radius of curvature of concaved surface

\(t\)

Time

\(U_\infty \)

Upstream flow speed

\(\Delta D\)

Decrement in drag (positive when drag is reduced)

\(\Delta t\)

Time elapsed from the reference moment

\(\delta _\mathrm{i}\)

Dimensionless pulse interval, (5)

\(\eta \)

Efficiency of energy deposition

\(\rho _\mathrm{b}\)

Density of laser-heated gas bubble

\(\rho _\infty \)

Upstream density

References

  1. 1.
    Knight, D.: Survey of aerodynamic drag reduction at high speed by energy deposition. J. Prop. Power 24, 1153–1167 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tret’yakov, P.K., Garanin, A.F., Grachev, G.N., Krainev, V.L., Ponomarenko, A.G., Tishchenko, V.N., Yakovlev, V.I.: Control of supersonic flow around bodies by means of high-power recurrent optical breakdown. Physics-Doklady 41, 566–567 (1996)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Takaki, R., Liou, M.-S.: Parametric study of heat release preceding a blunt body in hypersonic flow. AIAA J. 40, 501–509 (2002) Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sasoh, A., Sekiya, Y., Sakai, T., Kim, J.-H., Matsuda, A.: Wave drag reduction over a blunt nose with repetitive laser energy depositions. AIAA J. 48, 2811–2817 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Adelgren, R.A., Yan, H., Elliott, G.S., Knight, D.D., Beutner, T.J., Zheltovodov, A.A.: Control of edney iv interaction by pulsed laser energy deposition. AIAA J. 43, 256–269 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sakai, T., Sekiya, Y., Mori, K., Sasoh, A.: Interaction between laser-induced plasma and shock wave over a blunt body in a supersonic flow. Proc. IMechE J. Aerosp. Eng. Part G 222, 605–617 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zudov, V.N., Tret’yakov, P.K., Tupikin, A.V., Yakovlev, V.I.: Supersonic flow past a thermal source. Fluid Dyn. 38, 782–793 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim, J.-H., Matsuda, A., Sakai, T., Sasoh, A.: Wave drag reduction with acting spike induced by laser-pulse energy depositions. AIAA J. 49, 2076–2078 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim, J.-H., Matsuda, A., Sasoh, A.: Formation of a virtual spike built-up with vortex rings generated by repetitive energy depositions over a bow shock layer. Phys. Fluids 23, 021703 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ogino, Y., Ohishi, N., Taguchi, S., Sawada, K.: Baroclinic vortex influence on wave drag reduction induced by pulse energy deposition. Phys. Fluids 21, 066102 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sakai, T.: Supersonic drag performance of truncated cones with repetitive energy depositions. Int. J. Aerosp. Innovat. 1, 31–43 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Aerospace EngineeringNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan

Personalised recommendations