Shock Waves

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 43–54 | Cite as

Numerical prediction of rock mass damage due to accidental explosions in an underground ammunition storage chamber

Original Article

Abstract

Accidental detonations in an underground ammunition storage chamber inside a rock mass may cause severe damage to the rock mass around the chamber, adjacent tunnels and chambers, ground surface, and in the worst case cause sympathetic detonation of explosives in adjacent storage chambers. To prevent such damage, underground ammunition storage chambers are often situated at minimum depth below the ground surface, and spaced at minimum distance from each other, so that damage, should it occur, is limited to the accidental chamber. Different codes and regulations for ammunition storage chambers specify minimum embedment depth and separation distance for underground ammunition storage chambers. They are usually given in terms of the rock mass properties and the weight of explosive stored in chambers. Some empirical formulae, usually based on the peak particle velocity of the stress wave or the maximum strain of the rock mass, are also available to estimate the damage zones in the rock mass from an explosion. All these empirical methods do not include the effects of explosion details, such as the loading density, chamber geometry and explosive distribution. In this paper, a previously calibrated numerical model is used to estimate the damage zones in a granite mass resulting from an accidental explosion in an underground ammunition storage chamber. Effects of various explosion conditions on rock mass damage are investigated. On the basis of the numerical results, some empirical formulae are derived to predict damage zones around the explosion chamber, as well as safe embedment depth of the storage chamber and safe separation distance between adjacent chambers. The numerical results are also compared with available empirical formulae and code specifications. It should be noted that the characteristics of stress wave propagation around an ammunition storage chamber has been published in a preceding paper (Int. J. Blast. Fragm. 5:57–90, 2001.

Keywords

Numerical prediction Rock damage Charge chamber Accidental detonations 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hao, H., Wu, C.: Scaled-distance relationships for chamber blast accidents in underground storage of explosives. Fragblast—Int. J. Blast. Fragm. 5, 57–90 (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    DoD: USA DoD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards. DoD 6055. 9-STD (1992)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    NATO: Manual on NATO Safety Principles for the Storage of Ammunition and Explosives. Document AC/258-D/258, Bonn, Germany (1993)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dowding, C.H.: Construction Vibrations. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey (1996)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hendron, A.J.: Engineering of rock blasting on civil projects. In: Hall, W.J. (ed.) Structural and Geotechnical Mechanics. A Volume Honoring N. M. Newmark, pp. 242–277. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey (1977)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Odello, R.J.: Origins and implications of underground explosives storage regulations. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium of Transient Loading and Response of Structures. Troudhein, Norway, (1998)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kendorski, F.S., Jude, C.V., Duncan, W.M.: Effect of blasting on shortcrete drift linings. Mining Eng. 25(12), 38–41 (1973)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Siskind, D.E., Fumanti, R.: Blast-produced fractures. Lithonia Granite, Report of Investigations 7901. US Bureau of Mines (1974)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Swedish manual: BRABERG, FortF handbook (1988)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Switzerland Manual: Tcchiche Vorschriften fur die lagerung won munition (TLM 75), Teil 2 Sicherheitsbeurteilung von Munitionslagern(in German) (1992)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Taylor, L.M., Chen, E.P., Kuszmaul, J.S.: Micro-crack induced damage accumulation in brittle rock under dynamic loading. Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng. 55, 301–320 (1986)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yang, R., Bawden, W.F., Katsabanis, P.D.: A new constitutive model for blast damage. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr. 33, 245–254 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu, L., Katsabanis, P.D.: Development of a continuum damage model for blasting analysis. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 34, 217–231, (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hao, H., Ma, G.W., Zhou, Y.X.: Numerical simulation of underground explosions. Fragblast—Int. J. Blast. Fragm. 2, 383–395 (1998)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wu, C., Hao, H., Zhou, Y.X.: Dynamic response analysis of rock mass with stochastic properties subjected to explosive loads. Fragblast—Int. J. Blast. Fragm. 3, 137–153 (1999)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hao, H., Wu, C., Zhou, Y.X.: Numerical analysis of blasting-induced stress wave in anisotropic rock mass with continuum damage models. Part II: Stochastic approach. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 35(2), 95–108 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yazdchi, M., Valliappan, S., Zhang, W.: A continuum model for dynamic damage evolution of anisotropic brittle materials. Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 39, 1555–1583 (1996)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Century Dynamics: AUTODYN User Manual, Revision 3.0. Century Dynamics, Inc. (1997)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Persson, P.A.: The relationship between strain energy, rock damage, fragmentation, and throw in rock blasting. Fragblast—Int. J. Blast. Fragm. 1, 99–110 (1997)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li, Z., Huang, H.: The calculation of stability of tunnels under the effects of seismic wave of explosions. In: Proceedings of the 26th Department of Defence Explosives Safety Seminar, USA, Department of Defence Explosives Safety Board (1994)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Grady, D.E., Kipp, M.E.: Continuum modelling of explosive fracture in oil shale. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr. 17, 147–157 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bawden, W.F., Katsabanis, P., Yang, R.: Blast damage study by measurement and numerical modelling of blast damage and vibration in the area adjacent to blast hole. In: Bawden, Archibald (eds.) Innovative Mine Design for the 21st Century, Proceedings of the International Congress on Mine Design, Kingston, Ontario, Canada (1993)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Singh, B., Geol, R.K.: Rock Classification. Rock Quality Designation, Chap. 4. Elsevier Science, Oxford (1999)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wu, C., Hao H., Zhao, J., Zhou, Y.X.: Statistical analysis of anisotropic damage of the Bukit Tiamh granite. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 34, 23–38 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wu, C., Hao H.: Statistical analysis of RQD, cracking spacing, and RQD versus initial damage relationship of Singapore granite. Geotech. Eng. (Southeast Asian Geotechnical Society) 33(3), 103–112 (2002)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Thorne, B.J., Hommert, P.J., Brown, B.: Experimental and computational investigation of the fundamental mechanisms of cratering. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting pp. 412–423, Brisbsne, Australia, 1990Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Armed Services Explosives Safety Board: Theoretical considerations and quantity-distance separations recommended for protection of hazards from an underground explosion. Technical Report, No. 8, Washington, DC (1959)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: Underground explosion test program. Final report, Engineering Research Associates, St. Paul, MN (1953)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    NGI (Norwegian Geological Institute): Prediction model for ground shock from coupled and de-coupled explosions in rock. Document AC/258 (ST) (UGSWG)(NO)IWP03-2001 (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil and Environmental EngineeringThe University of AdelaideNorth TerranceAustralia
  2. 2.School of Civil and Resource EngineeringThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations