International Urogynecology Journal

, Volume 30, Issue 10, pp 1705–1710 | Cite as

The use of a heating pad to reduce anxiety, pain, and distress during cystoscopy in female patients

  • Hyun Ju Kim
  • Jong Wook Kim
  • Hong Seok Park
  • Du Geon Moon
  • Jeong Gu Lee
  • Mi Mi OhEmail author
Original Article


Introduction and hypothesis

This study evaluated the effects of using a heating pad during cystoscopy on anxiety, pain, and distress in female patients.


Seventy-four female patients who underwent rigid cystoscopy between January 2017 and August 2017 were randomized to either the experimental group using a heating pad (n = 37) or the control group using a pad without heat (n = 37). In the experimental group, a heating pad was applied to the patient’s sacrum during cystoscopy. All patients completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-S (STAI-S, 20-80) before and after the procedure and assessed their degree of pain and distress after the procedure using a visual analog scale (0–10). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate were also measured before and after the procedure.


Demographic characteristics, mean age, procedure duration, and pre- and post-procedural systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse rate were statistically similar between the experimental and control groups. The mean STAI-S score of the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (33.1 ± 10.1 vs 48.2 ± 11.1, p < 0.001). The experimental group had significantly lower pain and distress scores (visual analog scale, 3.8 ± 1.6 and 3.8 ± 1.8 respectively,) than the control group (6.4 ± 1.9 and 6.3 ± 2.1 respectively, both p < 0.001).


Using a heating pad during cystoscopy significantly reduced female patients’ anxiety, pain, and distress. We found this to be a safe, simple, and effective tool to use during cystoscopy.


Heating pad Cystoscopy Anxiety Pain Distress 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© The International Urogynecological Association 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyun Ju Kim
    • 1
  • Jong Wook Kim
    • 1
  • Hong Seok Park
    • 1
  • Du Geon Moon
    • 1
  • Jeong Gu Lee
    • 1
  • Mi Mi Oh
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of UrologyKorea University College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of UrologyKorea University Guro HospitalSeoulRepublic of Korea

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