International Urogynecology Journal

, Volume 28, Issue 9, pp 1309–1317 | Cite as

A national population-based cohort study of urethral injection therapy for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence: the Danish Urogynaecological Database, 2007–2011

  • Margrethe Foss HansenEmail author
  • Gunnar Lose
  • Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel
  • Kim Oren Gradel
Original Article


Introduction and hypothesis

Urethral injection therapy (UIT) has been performed since the early 20th century and a variety of agents have been launched. In 2006, polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAGH) was introduced and is now widely used as an agent. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of PAGH based on a national population over a 5-year period (2007–2011) and the influence of patient-related factors, surgeon experience, and department volume.


A retrospective cohort study was carried out based on data from the Danish Urogynaecological Database (DugaBase).


A total of 731 women were registered in the DugaBase. Cure was achieved in 75 out of 252 women (29.8%) and no leakage at all in 23 out of 252 (9.1%) at the 3-month follow-up. The mean total International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) score decreased from 16 (SD 3.8) to 10.6 (SD 6.2; p < 0.001). UIT was performed at 16 departments, of which four high-volume departments performed 547 out of 814 UITs (67.2%). Women with severe UI had a decreased chance of cure (all ICIQ-SF scores), as did women on antimuscarinic drugs (adjusted OR 0.14; 95%, CI 0.04–0.41 “frequency”) and (adjusted OR 0.33; 95%, CI 0.13–0.82, “amount”). Women treated by a high-volume surgeon had a higher chance of cure (OR 4.51; 95% CI, 1.21–16.82, “frequency”) and a lower risk of 30-day hospital contacts (OR 0.27; 95% CI 0.09–0.76).


The study represented a cure for UIT among women in an everyday life setting. A surgeon learning curve for UIT was indicated, as was assigning interventions to fewer hands to improve the surgical training value and consequently the cure rate for women with UIT.


Urethral injection therapy Patient-related outcome measures Surgeon volume Department volume National population 



Funding was provided by Aase og Ejnar Danielsens Fond and Edgar Schnohr og Hustru Gilberte Schnohr’s Fond. The Centre for Quality, Region of Southern Denmark, Middelfart, and the University of Southern Denmark financed the study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethics approval

The study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency ( 2012-41-0414). As the study did not include patient contact, it was not necessary to obtain approval from the Health Research Ethics Committee.

Conflicts of interest

Margrethe Foss Hansen incurred conference and travel expenses for attendance at the EUGA Leading Lights in Urogynaecology Congress, Warsaw, 2015, paid for by Astella. The other authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© The International Urogynecological Association 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margrethe Foss Hansen
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Gunnar Lose
    • 2
  • Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel
    • 2
  • Kim Oren Gradel
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Clinical Epidemiology, Odense University Hospital and Research Unit of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical ResearchUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdenseDenmark
  2. 2.Herlev Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Herlev, and Institute for Clinical MedicineUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

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