Advertisement

International Urogynecology Journal

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 537–541 | Cite as

Female genital mutilation: the role of medical professional organizations

  • Tony BaziEmail author
Special Contribution

Abstract

Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to alteration of the external genitalia of girls without medical benefit. It is estimated by United Nations agencies that 200 million living girls and women have been subjected to different forms of FGM worldwide. Despite the criminalization of the procedure in the vast majority of countries where it is practiced, the decline in the incidence of this ritual is far from satisfactory. Immediate and long-term ill effects are well documented. Most publications of relevance originate from countries outside the map of FGM. In addition, there are major gaps in research related to this issue, considering the magnitude of the problem. International medical organizations and societies should assume their responsibility by providing a platform to professionals engaged in the prevention and treatment of the consequences of FGM, especially those living in the communities where the practice is endemic.

Keywords

Female genital mutilation Ritual Female circumcision Female genital alteration Infibulation Clitoridectomy 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

None.

References

  1. 1.
    Kouba LJ, Muasher J. Female circumcision in Africa: an overview. Afr Stud Rev. 1985;28:95–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hosken FP. The Hosken report: genital and sexual mutilation of females. Lexington: Women’s International Network News; 1979.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    World Health Organization. Eliminating female genital mutilation. An interagency statement (OHCHR, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNECA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/csw52/statements_missions/Interagency_Statement_on_Eliminating_FGM.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov 2016.
  4. 4.
    United Nations Children’s Fund. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a global concern. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund; 2016. https://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/FGMC-2016-brochure_250.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov 2016.
  5. 5.
    Equality Now. Female genital mutilation (FGM) in the United States. New York: Equality Now; 2016. http://www.equalitynow.org/sites/default/files/FGM_US_fact_sheet.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov 2016.
  6. 6.
    United Nations Children’s Fund. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund; 2013. http://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/FGMC_Lo_res_Final_26.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov 2016.
  7. 7.
    Arbesman M, Kahler L, Buck G. Assessment of the impact of female circumcision on the gynecological, genitourinary and obstetrical health problems of women from Somalia: literature review and case series. Women Health. 1993;20:27–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    World Health Organization. WHO guidelines on the management of health complications from female genital mutilation. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/fgm/management-health-complications-fgm/en/. Accessed 11 Nov 2016.
  9. 9.
    United Nations Population Fund. Female genital mutilation (FGM) frequently asked questions. New York: United Nations Population Fund; 2015. http://www.unfpa.org/resources/female-genital-mutilation-fgm-frequently-asked-questions. Accessed 11 Nov 2016.
  10. 10.
    Vissandjée B, Kantiébo M, Levine A, N’Dejuru R. The cultural context of gender, identity: female genital, excision and infibulation. Health Care Women Int. 2003;24:115–124.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Fact sheet no. 23: Harmful traditional practices affecting the health of women and children. Geneva: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights; 1979. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/FactSheet23en.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov 2016.
  12. 12.
    World Health Organization. Female genital mutilation: a joint WHO/UNICEF/UNFPA statement. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1997. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/41903/1/9241561866.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov 2016.
  13. 13.
    United Nations. General Assembly. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 20 December 2012: 67/146. Intensifying global efforts for the elimination of female genital mutilations. New York: United Nations; 2012. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/67/146. Accessed 11 Nov 2016.
  14. 14.
    Dare FO, Oboro VO, Fadiora SO, Orji EO, Sule-Odu AO, Olabode TO. Female genital mutilation: an analysis of 522 cases in South-Western Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;24:281–283.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    WHO Study Group on Female Genital Mutilation and Obstetric Outcome, Banks E, Meirik O, Farley T, Akande O, Bathija H, Ali M. Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries. Lancet. 2006;367:1835–1841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Berg RC, Underland V, Odgaard-Jensen J, Fretheim A, Vist GE. Effects of female genital cutting on physical health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2014;4(11), e006316. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006316.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Collinet P, Sabban F, Lucot JP, Boukerrou M, Stien L, Leroy JL. Management of type III female genital mutilation. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod. 2004;33:720–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wuest S, Raio L, Wyssmueller D, Mueller MD, Stadlmayr W, Surbek DV, et al. Effects of female genital mutilation on birth outcomes in Switzerland. BJOG. 2009;116:1204–1209.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Catania L, Abdulcadir O, Puppo V, Verde JB, Abdulcadir J, Abdulcadir D. Pleasure and orgasm in women with female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). J Sex Med. 2007;4:1666–1678.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Abdulcadir J, Botsikas D, Bolmont M, Bilancioni A, Djema DA, Bianchi Demicheli F, et al. Sexual anatomy and function in women with and without genital mutilation: a cross-sectional study. J Sex Med. 2016;13:226–237.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Abdulcadir J, Rodriguez MI, Say L. A systematic review of the evidence on clitoral reconstruction after female genital mutilation/cutting. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2015;129:93–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Balfour J, Abdulcadir J, Say L, Hindin MJ. Interventions for healthcare providers to improve treatment and prevention of female genital mutilation: a systematic review. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016;16:409. doi: 10.1186/s12913-016-1674-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Toubia NF, Sharief EH. Female genital mutilation: have we made progress? Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2003;82:251–261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Muthumbi J, Svanemyr J, Scolaro E, Temmerman M, Say L. Female genital mutilation: a literature review of the current status of legislation and policies in 27 African countries and Yemen. Afr J Reprod Health. 2015;19:32–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Puppo V. Female genital mutilation and cutting: an anatomical review and alternative rites. Clin Anat. 2016. doi: 10.1002/ca.22763.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Arora KS, Jacobs AJ. Female genital alteration: a compromise solution. J Med Ethics. 2016;42:148–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arora KS, Jacobs AJ. Response to WHO. J Med Ethics. 2016;42:620.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Abdulcadir J, Rodriguez MI, Say L. Research gaps in the care of women with female genital mutilation: an analysis. BJOG. 2015;122:294–303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wall LL. Obstetric fistulas: hope for a new beginning. Int Urogynecol J. 1995;6:292–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Norman AM, Breen M, Richter HE. Prevention of obstetric urogenital fistulae: some thoughts on a daunting task. Int Urogynecol J. 2007;18:485–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Espuña Pons M. Sexual health of women with pelvic floor disorders. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2009;20 Suppl 1:S5–S7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dirim A, Hasirci E. Labial fusion causing urinary incontinence and recurrent urinary tract infection in a postmenopausal female: a case report. Int Urogynecol J. 2011;22:119–120.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bazi T, Abou-Ghannam G, Khauli R. Female urethral dilation. Int Urogynecol J. 2013;24:1435–1444.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Iglesia C, Yurteri-Kaplan L, Alinsod R. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a review of techniques and outcomes. Int Urogynecol J. 2013;24:1997–2009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Teufel K, Dörfler DM. Female genital circumcision/mutilation: implications for female urogynaecological health. Int Urogynecol J. 2013;24:2021–2027.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Numann PJ. Women’s health care in low income countries. Int Urogynecol J. 2014;25:721–723.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Anand M, Occhino JA, Stanhope T. Female genital mutilation reversal: a general approach. Int Urogynecol J. 2014;25:985–986.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Duvalla S, Naidu M, Johnson A. Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcomes. In: Selected abstracts from the annual research meeting of the British Society of Urogynaecology 2014. Int Urogynecol J. 2015;26:1701. doi: 10.1007/s00192-015-2664-2.
  39. 39.
    Singh A, Swift S, Khullar V, Digesu GA. Laser vaginal rejuvenation: not ready for prime time. Int Urogynecol J. 2015;26:163–164.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The International Urogynecological Association 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of MedicineAmerican University of Beirut Medical CenterRiad El-SolhLebanon

Personalised recommendations