International Urogynecology Journal

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 343–351 | Cite as

The influence of the modifiable life-style factors body mass index and smoking on the outcome of mid-urethral sling procedures for female urinary incontinence

  • Katja Stenström Bohlin
  • Maud Ankardal
  • Corinne Pedroletti
  • Håkan Lindkvist
  • Ian MilsomEmail author
Original Article


Introduction and hypothesis

The aim of this observational study was to investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) smoking and age on the cure rate, rate of complications and patient satisfaction with mid-urethral sling (MUS) procedures.


Pre-, peri- and postoperative (8 weeks and 1 year) data were retrieved from the Swedish National Register for Gynecological Surgery of MUS procedures (retropubic procedures, n = 4,539; transobturator procedures, n =1,769) performed between January 2006 and December 2011. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed between the outcome variables and BMI and smoking, presented as adjusted odds ratios (adjOR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI).


Subjective 1-year cure rate was 87.4 % for all MUS procedures (88.3 % with the retropubic technique and 85.2 % with the transobturator technique (p = 0.002). Preoperative daily urinary leakage and urgency were more common with increasing BMI, but surgery reduced symptoms in all BMI groups. Lower cure rate was seen in women with a BMI >30 (0.49; CI 0.33–0.73), in diabetics (0.50; CI 0.35–0.74) and women aged > 80 years (0.18; CI 0.06–0.51). Perioperative complications were more common in the retropubic group (4.7 % vs 2.3 % in the transobturator group, p=0.001) and in women with BMI < 25. Smoking did not influence any of the outcome variables.


The overall 1-year cure rate for MUS procedures was 87 %, but was negatively influenced by BMI >30, diabetes and age > 80 years. Perioperative complications were more common with the retropubic procedure than with the transobturator technique, and in women with a BMI < 25. Smoking did not impact on any of the studied outcome variables.


Body mass index Smoking Mid-urethral sling procedure Retropubic technique Transobturator technique Urinary incontinence 


Details of ethics approval

Ethics approval was obtained from the Regional and the National Ethic Review Boards (the Ethics Committee at Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, ref no.061-13, 5 June 2013.


The study was supported by a National LUA/ALF grant no. 11315 and Hjalmar Svenssson’s Research Foundation.

Financial disclaimer/conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© The International Urogynecological Association 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katja Stenström Bohlin
    • 1
  • Maud Ankardal
    • 2
  • Corinne Pedroletti
    • 1
  • Håkan Lindkvist
    • 3
  • Ian Milsom
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologySahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg UniversityGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Department of GynecologyKungsbacka HospitalKungsbackaSweden
  3. 3.Department of Mathematics and Mathematical StatisticsUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden

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