International Urogynecology Journal

, Volume 24, Issue 8, pp 1347–1354

Randomized controlled trial of pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback for urinary incontinence

  • Tomoe Hirakawa
  • Shigeyuki Suzuki
  • Kumiko Kato
  • Momokazu Gotoh
  • Yoko Yoshikawa
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00192-012-2012-8

Cite this article as:
Hirakawa, T., Suzuki, S., Kato, K. et al. Int Urogynecol J (2013) 24: 1347. doi:10.1007/s00192-012-2012-8


Introduction and hypothesis

To compare the effects of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), with or without biofeedback (BF), for stress urinary incontinence (SUI), focusing on condition-specific quality of life (QOL) outcomes.


Women with SUI were randomized to PFMT with BF (BF group, n = 23) or without BF (PFMT group, n = 23) for 12 weeks. As primary outcome measures, subjective symptoms and QOL were assessed by the King’s Health Questionnaire (KHQ) and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF). A voiding diary, 1-h pad test, and measurement of PFM strength were secondary outcome measures. Changes in the primary and secondary outcomes were assessed before and after 12 weeks’ exercise training.


Of the 9 domains of the KHQ, the scores of 5 significantly decreased in the PFMT group, and the scores of 7 significantly decreased in the BF group. All ICIQ-SF items and the total score significantly decreased in both groups after therapy. The number of incontinence episodes significantly decreased in the PFMT group, and tended to decrease in the BF group, but this was not significant (P = 0.054). The leakage volume in the 1-h pad test tended to decrease in both groups, but was not significant. Maximum vaginal squeeze pressure significantly increased in both groups. There were no significant inter-group differences in the changes in any of the parameters assessed.


The results indicate that PFMT is effective for treating SUI. There is no apparent add-on effect of BF training in short-term follow-up.


Biofeedback Exercise therapy Pelvic floor Quality of life Rehabilitation Urinary incontinence 

Copyright information

© The International Urogynecological Association 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomoe Hirakawa
    • 1
  • Shigeyuki Suzuki
    • 1
  • Kumiko Kato
    • 2
  • Momokazu Gotoh
    • 3
  • Yoko Yoshikawa
    • 4
  1. 1.Program in Physical and Occupational TherapyNagoya University Graduate School of MedicineNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Female UrologyJapanese Red Cross Nagoya First HospitalNagoyaJapan
  3. 3.Department of UrologyNagoya University Graduate School of MedicineNagoyaJapan
  4. 4.Department of UrologyKomaki City HospitalKomakiJapan

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