Prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence in Chinese women during and after their first pregnancy
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Introduction and hypothesis
This study evaluated factors and their prevalence associated with urinary (UI) and fecal (FI) incontinence during and after a woman’s first pregnancy.
Nulliparous Chinese women with no UI or FI before pregnancy were studied with a standardized questionnaire for UI and FI from early pregnancy until 12 months after childbirth. Maternal characteristics and obstetric data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, independent sample t test, chi-square test, and logistic regression.
Three hundred and twenty-eight (74.2 %) women completed the study. The prevalence of antenatal UI increased with gestation. Overall, 192 (58.5 %), 60 (18.3 %), and 76 (23.1 %) had normal vaginal delivery, instrumental delivery, and cesarean section, respectively. Twelve months after delivery, prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urge urinary incontinence (UUI) was 25.9 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 21.5–30.6] and 8.2 % (95 % CI 5.2–11.2), respectively. In those who delivered vaginally, the prevalence was 29.7 % and 9.1 %, respectively. Prevalence of FI was 4.0 % (95 % CI 1.9–6.1). On logistic regression, vaginal delivery [odds ratio (OR) 3.6], antenatal SUI (OR 2.8), and UUI (OR 2.4) were associated with SUI. Antenatal UUI (OR 6.4) and increasing maternal body mass index (BMI) at the first trimester (OR 1.2) were associated with UUI. Antenatal FI was associated with FI (OR 6.1).
The prevalence of SUI, UUI, and FI were 25.9 %, 8.2 %, and 4.0 %, respectively, 12 months after delivery. Vaginal delivery, antenatal SUI, and UUI were associated with SUI; antenatal UUI and increasing maternal BMI at the first trimester were associated with UUI. Antenatal FI was associated with FI. Pregnancy, regardless of route of delivery and obstetric practice, had an effect on UI and FI.