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International Urogynecology Journal

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 299–306 | Cite as

Anxiety and depression associated with incontinence in middle-aged women: a large Norwegian cross-sectional study

  • Gunhild Felde
  • Ingvar Bjelland
  • Steinar Hunskaar
Original Article

Abstract

Introduction and hypothesis

Several studies have indicated depression and anxiety to be associated with urinary incontinence (UI), however, the strength of the associations varies widely. The objective of this study was to determine these associations in a large survey.

Methods

In a cross-sectional population-based survey study, we analysed questionnaire data on UI, depression and anxiety from 5,321 women between 40 and 44 years. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to predict the odds of having high levels of anxiety and depression among women with UI of different types and severities.

Results

Among women with UI, the adjusted OR for depression was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.32–2.04) and for anxiety 1.59 (95% CI, 1.36–1.86) compared with women without UI.

Conclusion

UI was associated with both anxiety and depression in middle-aged women, with the strongest associations for mixed and urgency UI.

Keywords

Urinary incontinence Anxiety Depression Epidemiology 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The data collection was conducted as part of HUSK (the Hordaland Health Study ´97-´99) in collaboration with the Norwegian National Screening Service.

Funding

The study is funded by Norwegian Medical Association´Fund for Research in General Practice.

Conflicts of interest

None.

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Copyright information

© The International Urogynecological Association 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gunhild Felde
    • 1
  • Ingvar Bjelland
    • 2
    • 3
  • Steinar Hunskaar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Public Health and Primary Health CareUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  2. 2.Department of Clinical MedicineUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  3. 3.Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ServicesHaukeland University HospitalBergenNorway

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