International Urogynecology Journal

, Volume 22, Issue 8, pp 937–946 | Cite as

Goal attainment scaling in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms: development and pilot testing of the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire

  • Linda BrubakerEmail author
  • Vik Khullar
  • Elisabeth Piault
  • Christopher J. Evans
  • Tamara Bavendam
  • James Beach
  • Yating Yeh
  • Zoe S. Kopp
  • Con J. Kelleher
  • Jeffrey Trocio
Original Article


Introduction and hypothesis

The Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire was developed to identify treatment goals and assess goal-achievement in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).


This study consisted of (1) gathering information on goal setting/attainment concepts, (2) goal elicitation (n = 41 patients with LUTS), (3) cognitive debriefing of draft questionnaire (n = 11), and (4) pilot testing (n = 104).


SAGA consists of baseline (goal-assessment; ranking) and follow-up (goal-achievement) modules. In addition to goals most frequently mentioned, patients can list up to five open goals. Goals most commonly reported as “very important” in pilot testing included reducing urgency (72%), incontinence (65%), and nocturia (64%). Treatment goals spontaneously reported as “very important” were reducing incontinence (45%), nocturia (40%), and frequency (26%).


SAGA may be used to identify treatment goals and assess goal-achievement in patients with LUTS in the clinic and for research (with additional validation). This information may promote patient–physician interaction and help patients establish realistic treatment goals, which may in turn improve treatment adherence and outcomes.


Antimuscarinic Benign prostatic hyperplasia Bladder outlet obstruction Goal attainment scaling Lower urinary tract symptoms Overactive bladder 



Goal attainment scaling


Health-related quality of life


Lower urinary tract symptoms


Overactive bladder


Overactive Bladder Questionnaire


Overactive Bladder Satisfaction


Patient Perception of Bladder Condition


Self-Assessment Goal Achievement



This study was initiated and sponsored by Pfizer Inc. Editorial support was provided by Simon J. Slater, PhD, at Complete Healthcare Communications, Inc., and was funded by Pfizer Inc.

Conflicts of interest

LB is a consultant and investigator for Pfizer Inc; EP, CJE, and YY are consultants for Pfizer; JB is a consultant and investigator for Pfizer Inc, and an investigator for Bristol-Myers Squibb, Astellas, LLC, Ingenix, and GlaxoSmithKline, plc; VK is a board member, consultant, investigator, and lecturer for Pfizer Inc, and a board member, consultant, and investigator for Astellas, and LLC; TB, ZSK, and JT are employees of Pfizer Inc.


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Copyright information

© The International Urogynecological Association 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda Brubaker
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vik Khullar
    • 2
  • Elisabeth Piault
    • 3
  • Christopher J. Evans
    • 3
  • Tamara Bavendam
    • 4
  • James Beach
    • 5
  • Yating Yeh
    • 3
  • Zoe S. Kopp
    • 4
  • Con J. Kelleher
    • 6
  • Jeffrey Trocio
    • 4
  1. 1.Loyola University ChicagoMaywoodUSA
  2. 2.St. Mary’s HospitalLondonUK
  3. 3.Mapi ValuesBostonUSA
  4. 4.Pfizer IncNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.Beach Clinical StudiesParadise ValleyUSA
  6. 6.St. Thomas’ HospitalLondonUK

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