Goal attainment scaling in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms: development and pilot testing of the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire
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Introduction and hypothesis
The Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire was developed to identify treatment goals and assess goal-achievement in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
This study consisted of (1) gathering information on goal setting/attainment concepts, (2) goal elicitation (n = 41 patients with LUTS), (3) cognitive debriefing of draft questionnaire (n = 11), and (4) pilot testing (n = 104).
SAGA consists of baseline (goal-assessment; ranking) and follow-up (goal-achievement) modules. In addition to goals most frequently mentioned, patients can list up to five open goals. Goals most commonly reported as “very important” in pilot testing included reducing urgency (72%), incontinence (65%), and nocturia (64%). Treatment goals spontaneously reported as “very important” were reducing incontinence (45%), nocturia (40%), and frequency (26%).
SAGA may be used to identify treatment goals and assess goal-achievement in patients with LUTS in the clinic and for research (with additional validation). This information may promote patient–physician interaction and help patients establish realistic treatment goals, which may in turn improve treatment adherence and outcomes.
KeywordsAntimuscarinic Benign prostatic hyperplasia Bladder outlet obstruction Goal attainment scaling Lower urinary tract symptoms Overactive bladder
Goal attainment scaling
Health-related quality of life
Lower urinary tract symptoms
Overactive Bladder Questionnaire
Overactive Bladder Satisfaction
Patient Perception of Bladder Condition
Self-Assessment Goal Achievement
This study was initiated and sponsored by Pfizer Inc. Editorial support was provided by Simon J. Slater, PhD, at Complete Healthcare Communications, Inc., and was funded by Pfizer Inc.
Conflicts of interest
LB is a consultant and investigator for Pfizer Inc; EP, CJE, and YY are consultants for Pfizer; JB is a consultant and investigator for Pfizer Inc, and an investigator for Bristol-Myers Squibb, Astellas, LLC, Ingenix, and GlaxoSmithKline, plc; VK is a board member, consultant, investigator, and lecturer for Pfizer Inc, and a board member, consultant, and investigator for Astellas, and LLC; TB, ZSK, and JT are employees of Pfizer Inc.
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