International Urogynecology Journal

, Volume 18, Issue 9, pp 1065–1069 | Cite as

Prevalence and risk factors for pelvic floor symptoms in women in rural El Salvador

  • Begüm ÖzelEmail author
  • Anne Marie Borchelt
  • Francesca M. Cimino
  • Miriam Cremer
Original Article


Our aim was to assess the frequency of pelvic floor symptoms among women in rural El Salvador. After written informed consent was obtained, we administered the short form of the urodynamic distress inventory (UDI-6) plus four other pelvic floor questions to 236 women aged 30 to 75 in rural El Salvador attending a general medicine or gynecology clinic. Average (SD) age, parity, and body mass index were 48.0 (8.4) years, 5.9 (3.4), and 26.9 (4.9) kg/m2, respectively. Ten (4.2%) women had a prior hysterectomy, 16 (6.8%) women were smokers, and 108 (45.8%) women were postmenopausal. Seventy-one percent of women reported urinary incontinence (UI); 49.3 and 61.1% of women reported urge UI and stress UI, respectively. Forty-one percent of women reported fecal incontinence (FI) of solid or liquid stool. Women with UI were significantly more likely to have had a hysterectomy compared to women without UI. Women with FI had significantly fewer years of education when compared to women without FI. In conclusion, pelvic floor symptoms are highly prevalent among women in rural El Salvador.


Urinary incontinence Fecal incontinence El Salvador Pelvic floor symptoms 


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Copyright information

© International Urogynecology Journal 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Begüm Özel
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anne Marie Borchelt
    • 2
  • Francesca M. Cimino
    • 1
  • Miriam Cremer
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Hampshire CollegeAmherstUSA
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA

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