International Urogynecology Journal

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 555–563

Xenograft use in reconstructive pelvic surgery: a review of the literature

  • Emanuel C. Trabuco
  • Christopher J. Klingele
  • John B. Gebhart
Review Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00192-006-0288-2

Cite this article as:
Trabuco, E.C., Klingele, C.J. & Gebhart, J.B. Int Urogynecol J (2007) 18: 555. doi:10.1007/s00192-006-0288-2


Xenografts, bovine or porcine acellular collagen bioprostheses derived from dermis, pericardium, or small-intestine submucosa, were introduced to overcome synthetic mesh-related complications. Although there are eight commercially available xenografts, there is a paucity of empiric information to justify their use instead of the use of synthetic grafts. In addition, limited data are available about which graft characteristics are important and whether graft-reinforced repairs reduce recurrences and improve outcomes. To address these knowledge gaps, we conducted a Medline search of published reports on xenografts in animal and human trials. Histologic host response to implanted xenograft material depends primarily on chemical cross-linking and porosity, and it is limited to four responses: resorption, incorporation, encapsulation, and mixed. No clinical data unequivocally demonstrate an improved benefit to graft-reinforced repair.


Biomaterial Dermal collagen Uterine Prolapse Reconstructive surgical procedures Small-intestine submucosa Surgical mesh Heterologous Transplantation 



expanded polytetrafluoroethylene


small-intestine submucosa

Copyright information

© International Urogynecology Journal 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emanuel C. Trabuco
    • 1
  • Christopher J. Klingele
    • 1
  • John B. Gebhart
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Gynecologic SurgeryMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

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