International Urogynecology Journal

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 431–436 | Cite as

Perception of nocturia and medical consulting behavior among community-dwelling women

  • Fong-Ying Chen
  • Yu-Tzu Dai
  • Chih-Kuang Liu
  • Hong-Jeng Yu
  • Cheng-Ying Liu
  • Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen
Original Article


We investigated the perception of nocturia and possible explanatory factors for medical consultation among community-dwelling women. Between October 2004 and February 2005, women aged ≥40 years living in Matsu, Taiwan, who were identified as having nocturia in a previous epidemiological survey, were interviewed with a questionnaire eliciting information about nocturia-specific quality of life impact (N-QOL), perceptions of nocturia, and medical-consultation behavior. A total of 328 women completed this study. Of these, 187 (57%), 99 (30.2%), 30 (9.1%), and 12 (3.7%) reported one, two, three, and four or more nocturia episodes, respectively, per night during the past 4 weeks. Most women attributed nocturia to aging or excessive fluid intake and had a lack of medical information. Overall, only 13.1% had visited a doctor for this condition. Nocturia episodes [≥three vs <three, odds ratio (OR) 3.8], N-QOL score (OR 2.0, per 10-point decrement), linking nocturia to a disease (OR 2.9), and medical information (OR 2.2) were independent factors associated with medical-consultation, whereas the lack of knowledge that nocturia was treatable appeared to be an important barrier to medical-consultation. Only 62.8% of the women were offered treatment upon consultation, even though nearly half of those treated reported significant improvement. A few women with nocturia have sought medical help, which appears to be affected by a compendium of factors. This study suggests that more information about nocturia should be provided to health providers and patients to identify and meet their most essential needs.


Nocturia Perception Treatment seeking 


Nocturia, defined by the International Continence Society subcommittee as a complaint that an individual has to wake from sleep to void [1], has only recently been recognized as a clinical entity rather than just being one of the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) [2]. It is a common reason for sleep disturbance in the general adult population and may subsequently result in adverse consequences, such as nighttime falls, perceptions of poor health, and reduced vitality and productivity [2, 3]. Nocturia affects both men and women to an equal extent, with prevalence estimates from 10 to 80% among studies, depending on the definition of nocturia episodes (from one to three per night) and the population surveyed [3, 4, 5, 6].

Recent research has shown that nocturia has a multifactorial etiology that includes overproduction of urine in the night (nocturnal polyuria), reduced storage ability of the urinary bladder, or a combination of both [2, 3]. Based on the underlying causes, current treatment strategies include lifestyle modification and pharmacological therapies. The former includes fluid restriction, compression stockings, and late afternoon naps with the legs elevated, which may reduce fluid buildup. The latter involves diuretics in the afternoon, bladder smooth muscle relaxants, desmopressin, and imipramine [3, 6].

Despite its prominence and negative consequences, nocturia is a poorly reported and infrequently diagnosed problem. Investigations on the perception of nocturia and help-seeking behavior, which may help identify and meet the needs for those who are most afflicted, remain sparse. Because nocturia in men is frequently presented and treated as one of the LUTS that are assumed to be prostate-related, it is difficult to discern the motivation and outcome of treatment.

In the present study, we investigated the perception of nocturia and medical-consultation behavior in a community-dwelling female cohort of individuals that underwent a survey for nocturia-specific quality of life (N-QOL) impact [7]. Potential predictors for medical consultation and the outcome of treatment were explored.

Materials and methods

Between October 2002 and February 2003, all inhabitants aged ≥30 years in Matsu, a small city located in the northeast of Taiwan, were invited to participate in a comprehensive screening program on public health (Matsu Community-Based Integrated Screening supported by the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health of Taiwan). A supplement urological survey aimed at investigating the epidemiologic aspects of nocturia and overactive bladder syndrome was included as part of this study program.

A total of 862 women (approximately 75% of the target population) completed the initial survey. The prevalence of nocturia and associated risk factors have been published elsewhere [4]. Between October 2004 and February 2005, women who were aged ≥40 years and reported one or more nocturia episodes per night in the survey (n=351) were interviewed again by public nurses with a questionnaire designed to investigate the N-QOL impact, perception of nocturia, and medical-consultation behavior. Among these, 51 who participated in the initial survey were excluded either due to nonresponse (n=37) or the resolution of the nocturia (n=14). Moreover, we recruited 28 women who failed to participate in the initial survey and reported one or more nocturia episodes. Consequently, a total of 328 women completed this study.

The questionnaire consisted of three parts. The first part collected information on demographics, medical conditions, and nocturia characteristics. The second part contained a validated 12-item N-QOL questionnaire [8] assessing the N-QOL impact. The N-QOL score ranged from 0 to 100, with a lower score indicating poorer QOL. The details and results of the N-QOL impact have been previously described elsewhere [7]. The final part of the questionnaire focused on the subject’s perception of nocturia, coping strategies, and medical-consultation behavior. A multiple-choice question asked the participants “do you think your nocturia is a result of or related to the following factors,” with response options such as excess fluid intake, disrupted sleep, a consequence of aging, and a consequence of certain diseases. The strategies they took to cope with nocturia, if ever they had any, were also queried. Subsequently, they were asked if they had ever received information about nocturia from the media or public medical campaigns (medical information).

Finally, they were asked if they had ever consulted a doctor for their nocturia. If the response was “yes,” they were asked about the result of the treatment (with response options of not offered treatment, not improved or getting worse, slightly improved, and significantly improved). For those who did not seek medical help, the reasons were elicited by a question with multiple choices. Response options included “nocturia was a normal aging process,” “the problem was too minor to seek a doctor,” “lack of awareness that nocturia was treatable,” “too embarrassed to see a doctor,” “have no time to see a doctor,” and “concerned about medical costs.”

Continuous variables were presented as the mean±standard deviation and were compared using the t test. Categorical variables were presented as a percentage and were compared using the chi-square test. Univariate analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of potential variables, including demographics (age, educational level, and employment status), medical conditions, nocturia episodes (one, two, three, and four or more), duration of nocturia, N-QOL score, coping strategies, perception of nocturia, and medical information on medical consultation. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to test the association between medical consultation and the factors that had a P value of <0.1 in the univariate analysis. For all analyses, a P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.


A total of 328 women, with a mean age of 59.3 years (range of 40–79 years), completed this study. Among these, 187 (57%), 99 (30.2%), 30 (9.1%), and 12 (3.7%) reported one, two, three, and four or more nocturia episodes, respectively, per night during the past 4 weeks. Only 43 (13.1%) reported having consulted a doctor for nocturia. The baseline characteristics of all participants and the percentage of medical consultation as regards individual characteristics (e.g., age, nocturia episodes) are shown in Table 1.
Table 1

Characteristics of the study participants


n (% in parentheses)

Consultation (%)

Number of cases



Age groups



98 (29.9)



76 (23.2)



70 (21.3)



84 (25.6)


Current employment

51 (15.5)


Educational level


 Primary school or below

151 (46.0)


 Middle to high school

146 (44.5)


 College or above

31 (9.4)


Nocturia episodes



187 (57.0)



99 (30.2)



30 (9.1)



12 (3.7)


Duration of nocturia (years)



174 (54.4)



146 (45.6)


Major comorbidities


 Cardiovascular disorder

106 (32.3)



32 (9.8)



9 (2.7)


 Neurological disorders

10 (3.0)



47 (14.3)



229 (69.8)





24 (7.3)



20 (6.1)



87 (26.5)



197 (60.1)


COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Only 3.7% of women with one nocturia episode consulted a doctor, in contrast to the 45.2% of those who reported three or more nocturia episodes (P<0.001). Table 2 shows subjects’ concepts about nocturia and coping strategies taken. Most women (58.8%) linked their nocturia to aging or excessive fluid intake (57.6%), while 41.5% adopted various coping strategies, mainly fluid restriction after night meals (32.9%).
Table 2

Perception of nocturia and coping strategies among the participants


n (% in parentheses)

Do you think that nocturia is a consequence of



193 (58.8)

 Excessive fluid intake

189 (57.6)

 Disrupted sleeping

103 (31.4)

 Certain diseases

55 (16.8)

Coping strategies

136 (41.5)

 Fluid restriction after night meal

108 (32.9)

 Keep the light on all night to prevent falls

58 (17.6)

 Take exercise after dinner

47 (14.3)

 Bedside toileting

21 (6.4)

Comparisons between women who had consulted a doctor and those who did not in terms of demographics, medical conditions, nocturia characteristics, perceptions of nocturia, coping strategies, and medical information are shown in Table 3. Only 20.4% said that they had learned medical information about nocturia from the media or public medical campaigns. There were significant differences between these two groups with respect to nocturia episodes (P<0.001), N-QOL score (P<0.001), perceptions of nocturia as a disease (P<0.001), presence of two or more major medical comorbidities (P=0.02), and medical information (P=0.001). On multiple logistic regression analysis, the factors that remained significantly associated with medical-consultation were nocturia episodes [three or more vs fewer than three odds ratio (OR) 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–9.6], N-QOL score (OR=2.0 per 10-point decrement, 95% CI 1.5–2.7), perception of nocturia as a disease (OR=2.9, 95% CI 1.2–7.0), and medical information (OR=2.2, 95% CI 0.9–5.0) (Table 4).
Table 3

Comparisons of variables between women who had or did not seek medical consult


Consultation (+)

Consultation (−)

P value



Age (years)




Nocturia episodes




Duration of nocturia (years)




N-QOL score




Current employment (%)




Educational level (%)



 Primary school or below




 Middle school or higher








Two or more medical comorbidities (%)




Perception of nocturia (%)


 Excessive fluid intake




 Disrupted sleep




 A normal aging process




 An illness




One or more coping strategies (%)




Medical information (%)




aValues represent mean±standard deviation

Table 4

Significant predictors for medical consultation on multivariate logistic regression analysis



95% CI

Nocturia episodes per night








N-QOL score (per 10-point decrement)



Linking nocturia to a disease








Medical information








The reasons for not consulting a doctor are listed in Table 5. Most of the women reporting fewer than three nocturia episodes did not seek help because they thought nocturia was a minor problem (66.4%) or part of the normal aging process (60.7%), in contrast to the corresponding 13.0 and 47.8% of those who reported three or more nocturia episodes (Table 5). Of note, 31.3% of the women reporting fewer than three nocturia episodes vs 47.8% of those reporting three or more nocturia episodes said that they did not see a doctor because they did not realize that nocturia was treatable. Only a minority of women reported that embarrassment or concerns about medical costs had prevented them from consulting a doctor.
Table 5

Reasons for not consulting a doctor (n=285)


Nocturia <3

Nocturia ≥3

P value

n=262 (%)

n=23 (%)

Nocturia is a normal aging process




Too minor to seek help




Don’t know that nocturia can be treated




Have no time




Too embarrassing to seek help




Treatment costs too much money




Of the 43 women who had consulted a doctor, 37.2% were not offered any treatment. Only 27 (62.8%) had received definite treatments, from which 22.2% reported no improvement or worsening, 29.6% reported slight improvement, and 48.1% reported significant improvement.


Our results indicate that, similar to other LUTS, most women view nocturia as a consequence of aging, and only about one fifth of them have medical information on nocturia from the media or public medical campaigns. Moreover, only a few women (13.1%) with nocturia had sought medical help, which appears to be driven by a variety of factors, including increasing nocturia episodes, a lower N-QOL score, linking nocturia to a disease, and having medical information. Conversely, viewing nocturia as part of the normal aging process, viewing it as a minor problem, or being unaware that this problem is treatable are the main factors that preclude women from seeking medical help. Lastly, a considerable proportion of women did not receive treatment upon medical consultation, while nearly half of those treated reported significant improvement.

Self-belief on LUTS significantly affects the motivation of treatment-seeking [9, 10]. Thus, people who attribute their LUTS to aging are inclined to adapt to their problems with different strategies, and consequently, are less likely to seek medical help. Conversely, those who link their LUTS to a disease, such as cancer, are more likely to seek medical help [11]. Consistent with these reports, most women (58.8%) in the present study attributed nocturia to aging and 41.5% adopted coping strategies. On the other hand, only a relative minority of women (16.8%) linked their nocturia to a disease, and they were about three times as likely to consult a doctor (Table 4).

Notably, only 20.4% of women stated that they had learned medical information about nocturia from the media or public medical campaigns. A prior study suggested that social influence, including medical information from media or advice from friends or relatives, is more important than symptoms of severity in driving people to seek medical help for their LUTS [12]. Parallel with this finding, our results reveal that women who have had medical information on nocturia were 2.2 times as likely to consult a doctor.

In the present study, nocturia episodes and QOL impact are independent factors associated with medical consultation: women reporting three or more nocturia episodes were about four times more likely than those reporting fewer than three nocturia episodes, and a 10-point decrement of N-QOL score was associated with a twofold-higher likelihood of consulting a doctor. Our previous study showed that the extent of sleep disturbance after nocturia is also an important factor, predicting a lower N-QOL score [7]. Apart from leading to adverse consequences, such as a reduction in productivity and vitality, dysphoric moods, and alterations in the immune system [3], sleep deprivation also has an impact on life expectancy. Asplund [13] reported that elderly people with three or more nocturia episodes had a greater mortality rate than those with fewer nocturia episodes. In the present study, 54.8% of women with three or more nocturia episodes never sought medical help. These women deserve medical attention, although some might have adapted themselves to this problem.

Few women (13.1%) had consulted a doctor for their nocturia. Comparisons of our data with those of others are difficult because, to the best of our knowledge, studies investigating treatment-seeking behavior for nocturia among community-dwelling women are lacking. One important factor accounting for this low rate of consultation was the low threshold used to define nocturia (one or more nocturia episodes per night), as proposed by the International Continence Society. Several studies, however, have shown that people with one nocturia episode are less likely to perceive the negative impacts [5, 7]. The rate of medical-consultation would have increased to 25.5% if only those reporting two or more nocturia episodes were taken into account.

Barriers that limit the use of medical care in this study cohort were explored. Apparently, viewing nocturia as a normal aging process, disregarding the severity of nocturia (60.7% for women reporting fewer than three nocturia episodes vs 47.8% for those reporting three or more nocturia episodes), is an important determinant. Alternatively, nocturia was too minor to be worthy of medical consult for women with fewer nocturia episodes (66.4% of those reporting fewer than three nocturia episodes). On the other hand, only 13.0% of those reporting three or more nocturia episodes admitted that their nocturia was too minor to seek help. Unlike that observed in other studies that investigated the treatment-seeking behavior for other LUTS, such as urinary incontinence [14], embarrassment did not appear to be an important factor precluding women from seeking medical help.

The lack of understanding of the causes, treatment, and cures of LUTS leads to poor conceptualization of the illness and may serve as a barrier to treatment-seeking [15]. Among women reporting three or more nocturia episodes, 47.8% admitted that unawareness of available treatments was the reason for not seeking medical help. This finding, coupled with the fact that only 20.4% of women had information on nocturia from public media or medical campaigns, suggests that improvement in nocturia knowledge would likely increase the prevalence of medical consultation.

Recent studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of desmopressin in the treatment of nocturia [2, 6]. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study conducted on nocturic women, Lose et al. [16] demonstrated that 46% of patients receiving desmopressin vs 7% patients receiving placebo had a 50% or greater reduction in nocturia episodes. Furthermore, desmopressin significantly prolonged the duration between sleep and first void. In addition, in a small-scale study conducted on women with urinary incontinence, behavioral modification has also been shown to reduce nocturia episodes [17].

Although the treatment strategies offered to those who sought medical help were not explored in detail, 37.2% did not receive any treatment upon medical consultation. One likely explanation is that in some women, nocturia might be a by-mentioned complaint among other problems with higher priority. Consequently, it may have been overlooked or the patients may merely have been reassured by doctors. Another possibility, however, is that some doctors might have been unfamiliar with the diagnosis and treatment of nocturia. Given that a significant proportion of women reported beneficial results from the treatment, more updated information regarding nocturia should also be given to doctors and other healthcare providers.

There are several potential limitations that should be considered. First, in this study, medical-consultation behavior was queried over the past few years, whereas symptoms were queried over the past month. As a result, past physician visits might have modified some of the variables examined as predictors, such as nocturia episodes. Also, as this survey only investigated women reporting nocturia during the study period, a small number of women whose nocturia had been cured from previous treatments would have been eliminated from this study. Second, the city of Matsu is a small community, and therefore, the possibility of a cohort effect must be ruled out in a comparative study between different communities. Third, although reasons for not seeking medical help were elicited in the present study, the desire for receiving treatment was not assessed. It is well recognized that a substantial proportion of women with severe LUTS do not want treatment, even if it is very bothersome [18].

In conclusion, our study shows that currently, few women with nocturia seek medical help, which appears to be driven by complex factors. Given that only a minority of women had learned medical information about nocturia and that a significant proportion of patients were not offered any treatment upon medical consult, we suggest that more information should be given to both care providers and patients.


  1. 1.
    Van Kerrebroeck P, Abrams P, Chaikin D, Donovan J, Fonda D, Jackson S, Jennum P, Johnson T, Lose GR, Mattiasson A, Robertson GL, Weiss J; International Continence Society (2002) The standardization of terminology in nocturia: report from the standardization subcommittee of the International Continence Society. BJU Int 3:11–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lundgren R (2004) Nocturia: a new perspective on an old symptom. Scand J Urol Nephrol 38:112–116 (review, 57 references)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Weiss JP, Blaivas JG (2000) Nocturia. J Urol 163:5–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yu HJ, Chen TH, Chie WC, Liu CY, Tung TH, Huang SW (2005) Prevalence and associated factors of nocturia among adult residents of the Matsu area of Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc 104:444–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schatzl G, Temml C, Schmidbauer J, Dolezal B, Haidinger G, Madersbacher S (2000) Cross-sectional study of nocturia in both sexes: analysis of a voluntary health screening project. Urology 56:71–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lose G, Alling-Moller L, Jennum P (2001) Nocturia in women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 185:514–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yu HJ, Chen FY, Huang PC, Chen TSH, Chie WC, Liu CY (2006) Impacts of nocturia on symptom specific quality of life among community-dwelling adults aged 40 years and older. Urology 67:713–718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Abraham L, Hareendran A, Mills IW, Martin ML, Abrams P, Drake MJ, MacDonagh RP, Noble JG (2004) Development and validation of a quality-of-life measure for men with nocturia. Urology 63:481–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dugan E, Roberts CP, Cohen SJ, Preisser JS, Davis CC, Bland DR, Albertson E (2001) Why older community-dwelling adults do not discuss urinary incontinence with their primary care physicians. J Am Geriatr Soc 49:462–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tseng IJ, Chen YT, Chen MT, Kou HY, Tseng SF (2000) Prevalence of urinary incontinence and intention to seek treatment in the elderly. J Formos Med Assoc 99:753–758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shaw C, Tansey R, Jackson C, Hyde C, Allan R (2001) Barriers to help seeking in people with urinary symptoms. Fam Pract 18:48–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wolters R, Wensing M, van Weel C, van der Wilt GJ, Grol RP (2002) Lower urinary tract symptoms: social influence is more important than symptoms in seeking medical care. BJU Int 90:655–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Asplund R (1999) Mortality in the elderly in relation to nocturnal micturition. BJU Int 84:297–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Harrison GL, Memel DS (1994) Urinary incontinence in women: its prevalence and its management in a health promotion clinic. Br J Gen Pract 44:149–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shaw C (2001) A review of the psychosocial predictors of helping-seeking behaviour and impact on quality of life in people with urinary incontinence. J Clin Nurs 10:15–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lose G, Lalos O, Freeman RM, van Kerrebroeck P; Nocturia Study Group (2003) Efficacy of desmopressin (Minirin) in the treatment of nocturia: a double-blind placebo-controlled study in women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:1106–1113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Johnson TM, Burgio KL, Redden DT, Wright KC, Goode PS (2005) Effects of behavioral and drug therapy on nocturia in older incontinent women. J Am Geriatr Soc 53:846–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kinchen KS, Burgio K, Diokno AC, Fultz NH, Bump R, Obenchain R (2003) Factors associated with women’s decisions to seek treatment for urinary incontinence. J Womens Health 12:687–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Urogynecology Journal 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fong-Ying Chen
    • 1
  • Yu-Tzu Dai
    • 2
  • Chih-Kuang Liu
    • 3
  • Hong-Jeng Yu
    • 4
  • Cheng-Ying Liu
    • 5
  • Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen
    • 6
  1. 1.School of NursingHung Kuang UniversityTaichuang CountyRepublic of China
  2. 2.School of NursingNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiRepublic of China
  3. 3.Department of Urology, Taipei City Hospital and College of MedicineFu-Jen Catholic UniversityTaipeiRepublic of China
  4. 4.Department of UrologyNational Taiwan University Hospital and College of MedicineTaipei 100Republic of China
  5. 5.Health Bureau of Lienkiang CountyLienkiang CountyRepublic of China
  6. 6.Institute of Preventive Medicine, College of Public HealthNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiRepublic of China

Personalised recommendations