International Urogynecology Journal

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 441–446 | Cite as

Learning outcomes of a group behavioral modification program to prevent urinary incontinence

  • Carolyn M. SampselleEmail author
  • Kassandra L. Messer
  • Julia S. Seng
  • T. E. Raghunathan
  • Sandra H. Hines
  • Ananias C. Diokno
Original Article


This study describes acquisition of knowledge and motor skill in bladder training (BT) and pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) and adherence following a behavioral modification program (BMP). Essentially continent (0–5 episodes in past year) community-dwelling older women (n=359) were randomized to treatment (n=164), a 2-h group education session supplemented by one brief individualized session of approximately 10 min, or control (n=195), no instruction, and followed for 12 months. Knowledge, motor skill, and adherence to the BMP were documented. Changes in pelvic muscle function and voiding interval were used to validate self-reported adherence. Following group instruction, mean BT and PFMT knowledge was 90 and 86%, respectively; 68% demonstrated correct PFMT technique without additional instruction, 29% required brief instruction, and 3% were unable to learn PFMT technique. Adherence ranged from 63 to 82% for PFMT and 58 to 67% for BT. Group instruction supplemented with brief individual instruction as needed is an effective teaching method for BT and PFMT.


Behavioral modification Bladder training Group instruction Pelvic floor muscle training Prevention Urinary incontinence 



The authors would like to acknowledge appreciation to Cindy Karl, BSN formerly of the Department of Urology Research at William Beaumont Hospital for her contributions and clinical data collection, and also our deep appreciation to A. Regula Herzog, M.A., Ph.D, for her scholarly contributions and whose untimely passing has left us with an irreplaceable loss (8 January 1941–28 July 2002). Grant support: funded by National Institutes of Health-National Institute of Aging MERIT Award R37 AGO8511 and Nursing R01 NR0718.


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Copyright information

© International Urogynecology Journal 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carolyn M. Sampselle
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kassandra L. Messer
    • 2
  • Julia S. Seng
    • 3
  • T. E. Raghunathan
    • 4
  • Sandra H. Hines
    • 2
  • Ananias C. Diokno
    • 5
  1. 1.Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of NursingUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.School of NursingUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of NursingUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.Institute for Social ResearchUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  5. 5.Department of UrologyWilliam Beaumont HospitalRoyal OakUSA

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