The Geodesist’s Handbook 2020

This article has been updated

Change history

  • 06 February 2021

    The funding note has been updated

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Markku Poutanen.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Poutanen, M., Rózsa, S. The Geodesist’s Handbook 2020. J Geod 94, 109 (2020).

Download citation