GNSS is indispensable to self-driving vehicles by delivering decimeter-level or better absolute positioning solutions. Such a high precision normally requires a convergence time spanning seconds to minutes, which is, however, unrealistic in extremely difficult driving conditions where GNSS signals are obstructed frequently. Such convergences, no matter how short, will greatly risk and discredit autonomous driving in satisfying stringent life safety standards. In this study, we therefore developed an extendable GNSS precise point positioning (PPP) model to exploit the advanced Galileo/BeiDou-3 more-than-three-frequency signals with the goal of achieving instant or single-epoch 10–30 cm positioning accuracy and over 99% availability for the horizontal components over wide areas. In particular, uncombined Galileo/BeiDou-3 signals on all available frequencies were injected simultaneously into PPP to perform single-epoch wide-lane ambiguity resolution (PPP-WAR) after phase bias calibrations on raw observations. Experimenting on the Galileo five-frequency data from 36 stations in Australia, we found that instant PPP-WAR was accomplished at more than 99.5% of all epochs; we achieved an instant positioning accuracy of 0.10 and 0.11 m (1σ) for the east and north components, respectively, using Galileo E1/E5a/E5/E5b/E6 signals from less than 10 satellites, while 0.16 and 0.23 m using BeiDou-3 B1C/B1I/B2a/B2b/B3I signals from only 5–6 satellites per epoch observed by 10 stations within China. Moreover, we carried out vehicle-borne experiments collecting multi-frequency Galileo/BeiDou-3 signals in the case of overpass and tunnel adversities. With 7 Galileo/BeiDou-3 satellites per epoch on average, instant PPP-WAR reached a mean positioning accuracy of 0.23 and 0.24 m for the horizontal components, which can be further improved to 0.14 and 0.12 m when multi-epoch filtering is preferably enabled. More encouragingly, though this positioning accuracy can also be ensured with triple-frequency data, the data redundancy favored by even more frequencies can reduce the high-precision recovery time from up to 4 s to 2 s in the case of total signal blockages. With the rapidly ongoing deployment of Galileo, BeiDou-3 and other GNSS constellations, we can envision an instant global positioning service characterized by around 20 cm horizontal accuracy and over 99% availability for self-driving vehicles.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
The raw GNSS data from ARGN are publicly available at ftp://ftp.ga.gov.au, while the IGS products can be accessed at ftp://cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov. All data from IGMAS and the vehicle-borne experiments in the study are available from the authors upon request.
Basile F, Moore T, Hill C (2018) Analysis on the potential performance of GPS and Galileo precise point positioning using simulated real-time products. J Navig 72(1):19–33
Boehm J, Niell AE, Tregoning P, Schuh H (2006) The global mapping function (GMF): a new empirical mapping function based on data from numerical weather model data. Geophys Res Lett 33:L07304
de Jonge PJ (1998) A processing strategy for the application of the GPS in networks. In: Publications on geodesy, 46, Netherlands Geodetic Commission, Delft, The Netherlands
Dong D, Bock Y (1989) Global positioning system network analysis with phase ambiguity resolution applied to crustal deformation studies in California. J Geophys Res 94(B4):3949–3966
Euler HJ, Schaffrin B (1990) On a measure of the discernibility between different ambiguity solutions in the static-kinematic GPS mode. In: Schwarz KP, Lachapelle G (eds) Kinematic systems in geodesy, surveying and remote sensing. Springer, New York, pp 285–295
Fantino M, Marucco G, Mulassano P, Pini M (2008) Performance analysis of MBOC, AltBOC and BOC modulations in terms of multipath effects on the carrier tracking loop within GNSS receivers. In: Proceedings of IEEE/ION PLANS, Monterey, CA, pp 369–376. https://doi.org/10.1109/plans.2008.4570092
Feng Y, Li B (2010) Wide area real time kinematic decimeter positioning with multiple carrier GNSS signals. Sci China Ser D 53(5):731–740
Ge M, Gendt G, Rothacher M, Shi C, Liu J (2008) Resolution of GPS carrier-phase ambiguities in precise point positioning (PPP) with daily observations. J Geod 82(7):389–399
Geng J, Bock Y (2013) Triple-frequency GPS precise point positioning with rapid ambiguity resolution. J Geod 87(5):449–460
Geng J, Teferle FN, Meng X, Dodson AH (2011) Towards PPP-RTK: ambiguity resolution in real-time precise point positioning. Adv Space Res 47(10):1664–1673
Geng J, Shi C, Ge M, Dodson AH, Lou Y, Zhao Q, Liu J (2012) Improving the estimation of fractional-cycle biases for ambiguity resolution in precise point positioning. J Geod 86(8):579–589
Geng J, Guo J, Chang H, Li X (2019a) Toward global instantaneous decimeter-level positioning using tightly coupled multi-constellation and multi-frequency GNSS. J Geod 93(7):977–991
Geng J, Guo J, Meng X, Gao K (2019b) Speeding up PPP ambiguity resolution using triple-frequency GPS/BeiDou/Galileo/QZSS data. J Geod. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-019-01330-1
Geng J, Chen X, Pan Y, Zhao Q (2019c) A modified phase clock/bias model to improve PPP ambiguity resolution at Wuhan University. J Geod. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-019-01301-6
Guo J, Geng J (2017) GPS satellite clock determination in case of inter-frequency clock biases for triple-frequency precise point positioning. J Geod 92(10):1133–1142
Guo J, Xin S (2019) Toward single-epoch 10-centimeter precise point positioning using Galileo E1/E5a and E6 signals. In: Proceedings of ION GNSS + 2019, 16–20 Sept, Miami, FL, pp 2870–2887
Hatch R (2006) A new three-frequency, geometry-free technique for ambiguity resolution. In: Proceedings of ION GNSS 2006, 26–29 Sept, Fort Worth, TX, pp 309–316
Kim J, Song J, No H, Han D, Kim D, Park B, Kee C (2017) Accuracy improvement of DGPS for low-cost single-frequency receiver using modified Flächen Korrektur parameter correction. ISPRS Int J Geo Inf 6(7):222
Laurichesse D, Banville S (2018) Innovation: instantaneous centimeter-level multi-frequency precise point positioning. GPS World July 4, 2018 (www.gpsworld.com/innovation-instantaneous-centimeter-level-multi-frequency-precise-point-positioning/). Accessed Oct 2018
Li B, Li Z, Zhang Z, Tan Y (2017) ERTK: extra-wide-lane RTK of triple-frequency GNSS signals. J Geod 91(9):1031–1047
Li P, Zhang X, Ge M, Schuh H (2018) Three-frequency BDS precise point positioning ambiguity resolution based on raw observables. J Geod. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-018-1125-3
Lu M, Li W, Yao Z, Cui X (2019) Overview of BDS III new signals. Navigation 66(1):19–35
Nadarajah N, Khodabandeh A, Wang K, Choudhury M, Teunissen P (2018) Multi-GNSS PPP-RTK: from large- to small-scale networks. Sensors 18(4):1078
Odijk D, Zhang B, Khodabandeh A, Odolinski R, Teunissen P (2016) On the estimability of parameters in undifferenced, uncombined GNSS network and PPP-RTK user models by means of S-system theory. J Geod 90(1):15–44
Odolinski R, Teunissen PJG, Odijk D (2015) Combined BDS, Galileo, QZSS and GPS single-frequency RTK. GPS Solut 19(1):151–163
Prochniewicz D, Szpunar R, Brzezinski A (2016) Network-based stochastic model for instantaneous GNSS real-time kinematic positioning. J Surv Eng 142(4):05016004
Saastamoinen J (1973) Contribution to the theory of atmospheric refraction: refraction corrections in satellite geodesy. Bull Geod 107(1):13–34
Schaer S (2016) SINEX-Bias-Solution independent exchange format for GNSS biases version 1.00 (draft). In: IGS workshop on GNSS biases, Bern, Switzerland, 5–6 Nov
Schaffrin B, Bock Y (1988) A unified scheme for processing GPS dual-band observations. Bull Geod 62:142–160
Schreiber M, Knöppel C, Franke U (2013) Laneloc: Lane marking based localization using highly accurate maps. In: Proceedings of the IEEE intelligent vehicles symposium, Gold Coast, Australia, 23–26 June, pp 449–454
Stephenson S, Meng X, Moore T, Baxendale A, Edwards T (2013) Network RTK for intelligent vehicles: accurate, reliable, available, continuous positioning for cooperative driving. GPS World 24(2):61–67
Teunissen PJG (1995) The least-squares ambiguity decorrelation adjustment: a method for fast GPS integer ambiguity estimation. J Geod 70(1–2):65–82
Teunissen PJG (1997) On the GPS widelane and its decorrelating property. J Geod 71(9):577–587
Teunissen PJG, Khodabandeh A (2015) Review and principles of PPP-RTK methods. J Geod 89(3):217–240
Teunissen PJG, Odolinski R, Odijk D (2014) Instantaneous BeiDou + GPS RTK positioning with high cut-off elevation angles. J Geod 88(4):335–350
Wang K, Khodabandeh A, Teunissen PJG (2018) Five-frequency Galileo long-baseline ambiguity resolution with multipath mitigation. GPS Solut 22:75
Zhang X, Wu M, Liu W, Li X, Yu S, Lu C, Wickert J (2017) Initial assessment of the COMPASS/BeiDou-3: new-generation navigation signals. J Geod. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-017-1020-3
Zhao Q, Wang C, Guo J, Wang B, Liu J (2017) Precise orbit and clock determination for BeiDou-3 experimental satellites with yaw attitude analysis. GPS Solut 22(1):4
Zumberge JF, Heflin MB, Jefferson DC, Watkins MM, Webb FH (1997) Precise point positioning for the efficient and robust analysis of GPS data from large networks. J Geophys Res 102(B3):5005–5017
This study is funded by the National Science Foundation of China (41674033) and National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFC1504002). We thank IGS (International GNSS Service), ARGN (Australian Regional GNSS Network) and IGMAS for the multi-GNSS data and the high-quality satellite products. The computation work was accomplished on the high-performance computing facility of Wuhan University.
About this article
Cite this article
Geng, J., Guo, J. Beyond three frequencies: an extendable model for single-epoch decimeter-level point positioning by exploiting Galileo and BeiDou-3 signals. J Geod 94, 14 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-019-01341-y
- Instant decimeter-level point positioning
- Galileo E6
- Precise point positioning
- Ambiguity resolution