Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 93, Issue 10, pp 2109–2122 | Cite as

On detection of observation faults in the observation and position domains for positioning of intelligent transport systems

  • Ahmed El-MowafyEmail author
Original Article


Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) depend on global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) as a major positioning sensor, where the sensor should be able to detect and exclude faulty observations to support its reliability. In this article, two fault detection and exclusion (FDE) approaches are discussed. The first is its application in the observation domain using Chi-square test in Kalman filter processing. The second approach discusses FDE testing in the positioning domain using the solution separation (SS) method, where new FDE forms are presented that are tailored for ITS. In the first form, the test is parameterized along the direction of motion of the vehicle and in the cross-direction, which are relevant to applications that require lane identification and collision alert. A combined test is next established. Another form of the test is presented considering the maximum possible positioning error, and finally a direction-independent test. A new test that can be implemented in the urban environment is presented, which takes into account multipath effects that could disrupt the zero-mean normal distribution assumption of the positioning errors. Additionally, a test is presented to check that the position error resulting from the remaining measurements lies within acceptable limits. The proposed methods are demonstrated through a kinematic test run in various environments that may be experienced in ITS.


GNSS Positioning Fault detection and exclusion Intelligent transport systems 



This research is supported by the Australian Research Council Grant Number DP170103341. Some of the data used were collected during an SBAS-testbed experiment, Grant Number, PD8703 funded by FrontierSI, and Geoscience Australia. Norman Cheoung and Joon Wayn Cheong are acknowledged for their help in data collection.

Author contribution

The author has developed the theory, performed the computations and data analysis, and wrote the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Earth and Planetary SciencesCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia

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