Advertisement

Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 93, Issue 10, pp 2109–2122 | Cite as

On detection of observation faults in the observation and position domains for positioning of intelligent transport systems

  • Ahmed El-MowafyEmail author
Original Article
  • 161 Downloads

Abstract

Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) depend on global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) as a major positioning sensor, where the sensor should be able to detect and exclude faulty observations to support its reliability. In this article, two fault detection and exclusion (FDE) approaches are discussed. The first is its application in the observation domain using Chi-square test in Kalman filter processing. The second approach discusses FDE testing in the positioning domain using the solution separation (SS) method, where new FDE forms are presented that are tailored for ITS. In the first form, the test is parameterized along the direction of motion of the vehicle and in the cross-direction, which are relevant to applications that require lane identification and collision alert. A combined test is next established. Another form of the test is presented considering the maximum possible positioning error, and finally a direction-independent test. A new test that can be implemented in the urban environment is presented, which takes into account multipath effects that could disrupt the zero-mean normal distribution assumption of the positioning errors. Additionally, a test is presented to check that the position error resulting from the remaining measurements lies within acceptable limits. The proposed methods are demonstrated through a kinematic test run in various environments that may be experienced in ITS.

Keywords

GNSS Positioning Fault detection and exclusion Intelligent transport systems 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research is supported by the Australian Research Council Grant Number DP170103341. Some of the data used were collected during an SBAS-testbed experiment, Grant Number, PD8703 funded by FrontierSI, and Geoscience Australia. Norman Cheoung and Joon Wayn Cheong are acknowledged for their help in data collection.

Author contribution

The author has developed the theory, performed the computations and data analysis, and wrote the manuscript.

References

  1. Aggarwal P, Syed Z, Noureldin A, El-Sheimy N (2010) MEMS-based integrated navigation. Artech House Publisher, NorwoodGoogle Scholar
  2. Baarda WA (1968) Testing procedure for use in geodetic networks netherlands geodetic commission. Publications on Geodesy, New Series, vol 2, no 5. https://www.ncgeo.nl/index.php/en/publicatiesgb/publications-on-geodesy/item/2515-pog-09-w-baarda-a-testing-procedure-for-use-in-geodetic-networks
  3. Blanch J, Walter T, Enge P (2014) Optimal positioning for advanced RAIM. Navigation 60(4):279–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blanch J, Walter T, Enge P, Lee Y, Pervan B, Rippl M, Spletter A, Kropp V (2015) Baseline advanced RAIM user algorithm and possible improvements. IEEE Trans Aerosp Electron Syst 51(1):713–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Braasch MS (1996) Multipath effects. In: Parkinson BW, Spilker JJ Jr (eds) Global positioning system: theory and applications, Ch. 14, vol 1. AIAA, Washington, DC, pp 547–568Google Scholar
  6. Brown RG (1992) A baseline GPS RAIM scheme and a note on the equivalence of three RAIM methods. Navigation 39(3):301–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Bakker PF, Van der Marel H, Teunissen PJG (2009) The minimal detectable bias for GNSS observations with a single receiver setup and a geometry-free model. In: Proceedings of ENC-GNSS 2009, Naples, Italy, 3–6 May 2009Google Scholar
  8. El-Mowafy A (2014) GNSS Multi-frequency receiver single-satellite measurement validation method. GPS Solut 18(4):553–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. El-Mowafy A (2015) Diagnostic tools using a multi-constellation single-receiver single-satellite data validation method. J Navig 68(1):196–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. El-Mowafy A (2017) Advanced receiver autonomous integrity monitoring using triple frequency data with a focus on treatment of biases. Adv Space Res 59(8):2148–2157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. El-Mowafy A, Imparato D (2018) Positioning Integrity, Availability and Precision for Journey Planning and Navigation using GNSS Integrated with Low-Cost Sensors. In: Proceedings. ION GNSS + 2018, September 24–28, 2018, MiamiGoogle Scholar
  12. El-Mowafy A, Kubo N (2017) Integrity monitoring of vehicle positioning in urban environment using RTK-GNSS, IMU and speedometer. Meas Sci Technol 28(5):055102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. El-Mowafy A, Kubo N (2018) A new approach for positioning integrity monitoring of intelligent transport systems using integrated RTK-GNSS, IMU and vehicle odometer. IET Intell Transp Syst 12(8):901–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. El-Mowafy A, Mohamed A (2005) Attitude determination from GNSS using adaptive Kalman filtering. J Navig 58(1):135–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. El-Mowafy A, Yang C (2016) Limited sensitivity analysis of ARAIM availability for LPV-200 over Australia using real data. Adv Space Res 57(2):659–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Groves PD, Jiang Z (2013) Height aiding, C/N0 weighting and consistency checking for GNSS NLOS and multipath mitigation in urban areas. J Navig 66(5):653–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Groves PD, Jiang Z, Wang L, Ziebart M (2012) Intelligent urban positioning using multi-constellation GNSS with 3D mapping and NLOS signal detection. In: Proceedings of the ION GNSS 2012, Nashville, Tennessee, pp 458–472Google Scholar
  18. Hsu L, Gu Y, Kamijo S (2015) NLOS correction/exclusion for GNSS measurement using RAIM and city building models. Sensors 15:17329–17349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Imparato D (2014) Detecting multi-dimensional threats: a comparison of solution separation test and uniformly most powerful invariant test. In: Proceedings of the European navigation conference (ENC)-GNSS, 7–14 April 2014, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  20. Imparato D, El-Mowafy A, Rizos C (2018) Positioning integrity monitoring: from aviation to land applications. multifunctional operation and application of GPS. InTech Publisher, UK, Chapter 2, pp 23–43Google Scholar
  21. Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM) 2007, Standards and Practices for Control Surveys—Special Publication 1 (version 1.7) Canberra AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  22. Jöerger M, Pervan B (2016) Fault detection and exclusion using solution separation and Chi-squared ARAIM. IEEE Trans Aerosp Electron Syst 52(2):726–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jöerger M, Chan FC, Pervan B (2014) Solution separation versus residual-based RAIM. Navigation 61(4):273–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Knight N, Wang J, Rizos C (2010) Generalised measures of reliability for multiple outliers. J Geod 84(10):625–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Krarup T, Kubik K, Juhl J (1980) Götterdämmerung over least squares. In: Proceedings of international society for photogrammetry 14th congress, Hamburg, pp 370–378Google Scholar
  26. Kuang S (1996) Geodetic network analysis and optimal design. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, MichiganGoogle Scholar
  27. Kuusniemi H (2005) User-level reliability and quality monitoring in satellite-based personal navigation. PhD dissertation, The University of Calgary, pp 209Google Scholar
  28. Leick A (2004) GPS Satellite Surveying, 3rd edn. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  29. Margaria D, Falletti E (2014) A novel local integrity concept for GNSS receivers in urban vehicular contexts. In: Proceedings of the IEEE/ION PLANS 2014, Monterey, CA, USA, 5–8 May, pp 413–425Google Scholar
  30. Mubarak OM, Dempster AG (2010) Analysis of early late phase in single-and dual-frequency gps receivers for multipath detection. GPS Solut 14(4):381–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Parkinson BW, Axelrad P (1987) A basis for the development of operational algorithms for simplified GPS integrity checking. In: Proceedings of the first technical meeting of the satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, Colorado Springs, Colorado USA, pp 269–276Google Scholar
  32. Pirsiavash A, Broumandan A, Lachapelle G, O’Keefe K (2019) Detection and de-weighting of multipath-affected measurements in a GPS/Galileo combined solution. In: Proceedings of the European navigation conference 2019, 9–12 April, Warsaw, Poland, pp 1–12, 2019Google Scholar
  33. Powe M, Owen J (1997) A flexible RAIM algorithm. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS 1997, Kansas City, Sept 1997, pp 439–449Google Scholar
  34. Rife J, Pullen S, Enge P, Pervan B (2006) Paired overbounding for nonideal LAAS and WAAS error distributions. IEEE Trans Aerosp Electron Syst 42(4):1386–1395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Santa J, Ubeda B, Toledo R, Skarmeta AFG (2006) Monitoring the position integrity in road transport localization based services. In: IEEE vehicular technology conference, Montreal, QC, 2006, 1–5Google Scholar
  36. Sturza M (1988) Navigation system integrity monitoring using redundant measurements. Navigation 35(4):483–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tay S, Marais J (2013) Weighting models for GPS Pseudorange observations for land transportation in urban canyons. In: 6th European workshop on GNSS signals and signal processing, Dec 2013, Germany. 4p. hal-00942180Google Scholar
  38. Teunissen PJG (2006) Testing theory: an introduction, 2nd edn. VSSD, DelftGoogle Scholar
  39. Teunissen PJG, Kleusberg A (1998) GPS for geodesy, 2nd edn. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Walter T, Enge P (1995) Weighted RAIM for precision approach. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS-95, Palm Springs, 12–15 September, 1995–2004Google Scholar
  41. Walter T, Blanch J, Choi J, Reid T, Enge P (2013) Incorporating GLONASS into aviation RAIM receivers. In: Proceedings of the 2013 international technical meeting of the ION, 27–29 January, pp 239–249Google Scholar
  42. Wang L, Groves PD, Ziebart MK (2012) Multi-constellation GNSS performance evaluation for urban canyons using large virtual reality city models. J Navig 65(3):459–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wieser A (2001) Robust and Fuzzy Techniques for Parameter Estimation and Quality Assessment in GPS. PhD thesis, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria, 2001Google Scholar
  44. Zhu N, Betaille D, Marais J, Berbineau M (2018) GNSS position integrity in urban environments: a review of literature. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst 19(9):2762–2778CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Earth and Planetary SciencesCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations