Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 90, Issue 9, pp 837–851 | Cite as

PPP-RTK and inter-system biases: the ISB look-up table as a means to support multi-system PPP-RTK

  • A. KhodabandehEmail author
  • P. J. G. Teunissen
Original Article


PPP-RTK has the potential of benefiting enormously from the integration of multiple GNSS/RNSS systems. However, since unaccounted inter-system biases (ISBs) have a direct impact on the integer ambiguity resolution performance, the PPP-RTK network and user models need to be flexible enough to accommodate the occurrence of system-specific receiver biases. In this contribution we present such undifferenced, multi-system PPP-RTK full-rank models for both network and users. By an application of \(\mathcal {S}\)-system theory, the multi-system estimable parameters are presented, thereby identifying how each of the three PPP-RTK components are affected by the presence of the system-specific biases. As a result different scenarios are described of how these biases can be taken into account. To have users benefit the most, we propose the construction of an ISB look-up table. It allows users to search the table for a network receiver of their own type and select the corresponding ISBs, thus effectively realizing their own ISB-corrected user model. By applying such corrections, the user model is strengthened and the number of integer-estimable user ambiguities is maximized.


Multi-GNSS PPP-RTK Inter-system bias (ISB) Differential ISB (DISB) ISB look-up table 



This work has been done in the context of the Positioning Program Project 1.19 “Multi-GNSS PPP-RTK Network Processing” of the Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information (CRC-SI). P.J.G. Teunissen is the recipient of an Australian Research Council (ARC) Federation Fellowship (project number FF0883188). All this support is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GNSS Research CentreCurtin University of TechnologyPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Geoscience and Remote SensingDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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