Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 90, Issue 2, pp 143–159 | Cite as

Precise orbit determination for quad-constellation satellites at Wuhan University: strategy, result validation, and comparison

  • Jing Guo
  • Xiaolong Xu
  • Qile Zhao
  • Jingnan Liu
Original Article


This contribution summarizes the strategy used by Wuhan University (WHU) to determine precise orbit and clock products for Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). In particular, the satellite attitude, phase center corrections, solar radiation pressure model developed and used for BDS satellites are addressed. In addition, this contribution analyzes the orbit and clock quality of the quad-constellation products from MGEX Analysis Centers (ACs) for a common time period of 1 year (2014). With IGS final GPS and GLONASS products as the reference, Multi-GNSS products of WHU (indicated by WUM) show the best agreement among these products from all MGEX ACs in both accuracy and stability. 3D Day Boundary Discontinuities (DBDs) range from 8 to 27 cm for Galileo-IOV satellites among all ACs’ products, whereas WUM ones are the largest (about 26.2 cm). Among three types of BDS satellites, MEOs show the smallest DBDs from 10 to 27 cm, whereas the DBDs for all ACs products are at decimeter to meter level for GEOs and one to three decimeter for IGSOs, respectively. As to the satellite laser ranging (SLR) validation for Galileo-IOV satellites, the accuracy evaluated by SLR residuals is at the one decimeter level with the well-known systematic bias of about \(-5\) cm for all ACs. For BDS satellites, the accuracy could reach decimeter level, one decimeter level, and centimeter level for GEOs, IGSOs, and MEOs, respectively. However, there is a noticeable bias in GEO SLR residuals. In addition, systematic errors dependent on orbit angle related to mismodeled solar radiation pressure (SRP) are present for BDS GEOs and IGSOs. The results of Multi-GNSS combined kinematic PPP demonstrate that the best accuracy of position and fastest convergence speed have been achieved using WUM products, particularly in the Up direction. Furthermore, the accuracy of static BDS only PPP degrades when the BDS IGSO and MEO satellites switches to orbit-normal orientation, particularly for COM products, whereas the WUM show the slightest degradation.


BDS MGEX iGMAS Precise orbit determination  Precise point positioning Solar radiation pressure Yaw attitude 



The IGS MGEX, iGMAS, and ILRS are greatly acknowledged for providing the multi-GNSS and SLR tracking data. The research is partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41504009, 41574030). The authors are thankful to Dr. Xianglin Liu, who considerably revised the manuscript. Finally, the authors are also grateful for the comments and remarks of three reviewers, which helped to significantly improve the manuscript.


  1. Bar-Sever Y (1996) A new model for GPS yaw attitude. J Geod 70(11):714–723. doi: 10.1007/BF00867149 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beutler G, Brockmann E, Gurtner W, Hugentobler U, Mervart L, Rothacher M, Verdun A (1994) Extended orbit modeling techniques at the CODE processing center of the international GPS service for geodynamics (IGS): theory and initial results. Man Geod 19:367–386Google Scholar
  3. CSNO (2013) BeiDou Navigation Satellite System signal in space interface control document open service signal (version 2.0). Available on
  4. Deng Z, Ge M, Uhlemann M, Zhao Q (2014) Precise orbit determination of BeiDou satellites at GFZ. In: Proceedings of IGS workshop 2014, 23–27 June 2014, Pasadena, USAGoogle Scholar
  5. Dilssner F, Springer T, Gienger G, Dow J (2011) The GLONASS-M satellite yaw-attitude model. Adv Space Res 47(1):160–171. doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2010.09.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dilssner F, Springer T, Schönemann E, Enderle W (2014) Estimation of satellite Antenna Phase Center corrections for BeiDou. In: Proceedings of IGS workshop 2014, 23–27 June 2014, Pasadena, USAGoogle Scholar
  7. Dow J, Neilan R, Rizos C (2009) The International GNSS Service in a changing landscape of Global Navigation Satellite Systems. J Geod 83(3–4):191–198. doi: 10.1007/s00190-008-0300-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. ESA (2015) What is Galileo? Last access on June 6, 2015
  9. Ge M, Zhang H, Jia X, Song S, Wickert J (2012) What is achievable with the current COMPASS constellations? In: Proceedings of the 25th international technical meeting of the satellite division of the institute of navigation (ION GNSS 2012), Nashville, 17–21 Sept 2012Google Scholar
  10. Griffiths J, Ray J (2009) On the precision and accuracy of IGS orbits. J Geod 83(3–4):277–287. doi: 10.1007/s00190-008-0237-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guo J (2014) The impacts of attitude, solar radiation and function model on precise orbit determination for GNSS satellites. PhD Dissertation (in Chinese with English abstract), GNSS Research Center, Wuhan University, Wuhan, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  12. Hackel S, Steigenberger P, Hugentobler U, Uhlemann M, Montenbruck O (2014) Galileo orbit determination using combined GNSS and SLR observations. GPS Solut 19(1):15–25. doi: 10.1007/s10291-013-0361-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. He L, Ge M, Wang J, Wickert J, Schuh H (2013) Experimental study on the precise orbit determination of the BeiDou navigation satellite system. Sensors 13(3):2911–2928. doi: 10.3390/s130302911 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jiao W (2014) International GNSS Monitoring and Assessment System (iGMAS) and latest progress. Presented at China Satellite navigation conference (CSNC) 2014, Nanjing, 20 May 2014Google Scholar
  15. Konrad A, Fischer H, Muller C, Oesterlin W (2007) Attitude & orbit control system for Galileo IOV. Autom Control Aerosp 17(1):25–30. doi: 10.3182/20070625-5-FR-2916.00006 Google Scholar
  16. Kouba J (2009) A simplified yaw-attitude model for eclipsing GPS satellites. GPS Solut 13(1):1–12. doi: 10.1007/s10291-008-0092-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li M, Qu L, Zhao Q, Guo J, Su X, Li X (2014) Precise point positioning with the BeiDou navigation satellite system. Sensors 14(1):927–943. doi: 10.3390/s140100927 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu J, Ge M (2003) PANDA software and its preliminary result of positioning and orbit determination. Wuhan Univ J Nat Sci 8(2B):603–609. doi: 10.1007/BF02899825
  19. Lou Y, Liu Y, Shi C, Yao X, Zheng F (2014) Precise orbit determination of BeiDou constellation based on BETS and MGEX network. Sci Rep 4:4692. doi: 10.1038/srep04692
  20. Montenbruck O, Steigenberger P, Khachikyan R, Weber G, Langley R, Mervart L, Hugentobler U (2014) IGS-MGEX Preparing the ground for multi-constellation GNSS science. Inside GNSS 9:42–49Google Scholar
  21. Montenbruck O, Steigenberger P, Hugentobler U (2015) Enhanced solar radiation pressure modeling for Galileo satellites. J Geod 89(3):283–297. doi: 10.1007/s00190-014-0774-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pearlman M, Degnan J, Bosworth J (2002) The international laser ranging service. Adv Space Res 30(2):135–143. doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(02)00277-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Prange L, Dach R, Lutz S, Schaer S, Jäggi A (2014) The CODE solution for the IGS MGEX. In: Proceedings of IGS workshop 2014, 23–27 June 2014, Pasadena, USAGoogle Scholar
  24. Rodriguez-Solano C (2014) Impact of non-conservative force modeling on GNSS satellite orbits and global solutions. PhD Dissertation, Technische Universitaet München, München, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  25. Rodriguez-Solano C, Hugentobler U, Steigenberger P (2012) Adjustable box-wing model for solar radiation pressure impacting GPS satellites. Adv Space Res 49(7):1113–1128. doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2012.01.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shi C, Zhao Q, Li M, Tang W, Hu Z, Lou Y, Liu J (2012) Precise orbit determination of BeiDou satellites with precise positioning. Sci China Earth Sci 55(7):1079–1086. doi: 10.1007/s11430-012-4446-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Steigenberger P, Hugentobler U, Loyer S, Perosanz F, Prange L, Dach R, Montenbruck O (2015) Galileo orbit and clock quality of the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment. Adv Space Res 55(1):269–281. doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2014.06.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Uhlemann M, Gendt G, Ramatschi M, Deng Z (2014) GFZ global multi-GNSS network and data processing results. In: Willis P (ed) IAG Potsdam 2013 proceedings. International Association of Geodesy symposia. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  29. Wu J, Wu S, Hajj G, Bertiger W, Lichten S (1993) Effects of antenna orientation on GPS carrier phase. Manuscr Geod 18:91–98Google Scholar
  30. Zhang Z (2001) The crustal movement observation network of China. China Basic Sci 3(3):45–49Google Scholar
  31. Zhao Q, Guo J, Li M, Qu L, Hu Z, Shi C, Liu J (2013) Initial results of precise orbit and clock determination for COMPASS navigation satellite system. J Geod 87(5):475–486. doi: 10.1007/s00190-013-0622-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jing Guo
    • 1
  • Xiaolong Xu
    • 1
  • Qile Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jingnan Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.GNSS Research CenterWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.Collaborative Innovation Center of Earth and Space ScienceWuhan UniversityWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations