Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 89, Issue 3, pp 217–240 | Cite as

Review and principles of PPP-RTK methods

  • P. J. G. Teunissen
  • A. KhodabandehEmail author
Original Article


PPP-RTK is integer ambiguity resolution-enabled precise point positioning. In this contribution, we present the principles of PPP-RTK, together with a review of different mechanizations that have been proposed in the literature. By application of \(\mathcal {S}\)-system theory, the estimable parameters of the different methods are identified and compared. Their interpretation is essential for gaining a proper insight into PPP-RTK in general, and into the role of the PPP-RTK corrections in particular. We show that PPP-RTK is a relative technique for which the ‘single-receiver user’ integer ambiguities are in fact double-differenced ambiguities. We determine the transformational links between the different methods and their PPP-RTK corrections, thereby showing how different PPP-RTK methods can be mixed between network and users. We also present and discuss four different estimators of the PPP-RTK corrections. It is shown how they apply to the different PPP-RTK models, as well as why some of the proposed estimation methods cannot be accepted as PPP-RTK proper. We determine analytical expressions for the variance matrices of the ambiguity-fixed and ambiguity-float PPP-RTK corrections. This gives important insight into their precision, as well as allows us to discuss which parts of the PPP-RTK correction variance matrix are essential for the user and which are not.


PPP-RTK Integer ambiguity resolution Ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP) \(\mathcal {S}\)-bases Common clock (CC) model Distinct clock (DC) model Integer recovery clock (IRC) model Decoupled satellite clock (DSC) model Fractional cycle bias (FCB) model Geometry-free (GF) model Geometry-based (GB) model 



This work has benefitted from the many fruitful PPP-RTK discussions we had with our colleagues from the Curtin GNSS Research Centre. The first author is the recipient of an Australian Research Council (ARC) Federation Fellowship (project number FF0883188). This work has been done in the context of the Positioning Program Project 1.01 “New carrier phase processing strategies for achieving precise and reliable multi-satellite, multi-frequency GNSS/RNSS positioning in Australia” of the Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information (CRC-SI). All this support is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GNSS Research Centre, Department of Spatial SciencesCurtin University of TechnologyPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Geoscience and Remote SensingDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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