Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 87, Issue 9, pp 843–867 | Cite as

The static gravity field model DGM-1S from GRACE and GOCE data: computation, validation and an analysis of GOCE mission’s added value

  • H. Hashemi Farahani
  • P. Ditmar
  • R. Klees
  • X. Liu
  • Q. Zhao
  • J. Guo
Original Article


We present a global static model of the Earth’s gravity field entitled DGM-1S based on GRACE and GOCE data. The collection of used data sets includes nearly 7 years of GRACE KBR data and 10 months of GOCE gravity gradient data. The KBR data are transformed with a 3-point differentiation into quantities that are approximately inter-satellite accelerations. Gravity gradients are processed in the instrumental frame. Noise is handled with a frequency-dependent data weighting. DGM-1S is complete to spherical harmonic degree 250 with a Kaula regularization being applied above degree 179. Its performance is compared with a number of other satellite-only GRACE/GOCE models by confronting them with (i) an independent model of the oceanic mean dynamic topography, and (ii) independent KBR and gravity gradient data. The tests reveal a competitive quality for DGM-1S. Importantly, we study added value of GOCE data by comparing the performance of satellite-only GRACE/GOCE models with models produced without GOCE data: either ITG-Grace2010s or EGM2008 depending on which of the two performs better in a given region. The test executed based on independent gravity gradients quantifies this added value as 25–38 % in the continental areas poorly covered with terrestrial gravimetry data (Equatorial Africa, Himalayas, and South America), 7–17 % in those with a good coverage with these data (Australia, North America, and North Eurasia), and 14 % in the oceans. This added value is shown to be almost entirely related to coefficients below degree 200. It is shown that this gain must be entirely attributed to gravity gradients acquired by the mission. The test executed based on an independent model of the mean dynamic topography suggests that problems still seem to exist in satellite-only GRACE/GOCE models over the Pacific ocean, where noticeable deviations between these models and EGM2008 are detected, too.


Gravity field GRACE GOCE KBR Gradiometry 



The work was sponsored by the Nederlandse organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, NWO) by providing the finances and the Stichting Nationale Computerfaciliteiten (National Computing Facilities Foundation, NCF) by providing the high-performance computing facilities. We thank P. Visser, R. Kroes, and T. van Helleputte for providing GRACE reduced-dynamic orbits in February 2003–December 2005. GRACE level-1B data were provided by the JPL, whereas GOCE level-2 data by the European Space Agency. The synthesis of the gravity field models into the geoid ones, executed in the validation based on a control MDT model, was performed with GEOPOT07 (Smith 1998). CNES-CLS09 was provided by the AVISO data services. We wish to thank the editor, professor Jürgen Kusche, and three anonymous reviewers for their constructive remarks that helped us to improve the quality of the article.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Hashemi Farahani
    • 1
  • P. Ditmar
    • 1
  • R. Klees
    • 1
  • X. Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Q. Zhao
    • 3
  • J. Guo
    • 3
  1. 1.Delft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Fugro Intersite B.V.LeidschendamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.GNSS Research CenterWuhan UniversityWuhanChina

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