Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 86, Issue 12, pp 1125–1135 | Cite as

A globally applicable, season-specific model for estimating the weighted mean temperature of the atmosphere

Original Article


In GPS meteorology, the weighted mean temperature is usually obtained by using a linear function of the surface temperature T s. However, not every GPS station can measure the surface temperature. The current study explores the characteristics of surface temperature and weighted mean temperature based on the global pressure and temperature model (GPT) and the Bevis T mT s relationship (T ma + bT s). A new global weighted mean temperature (GWMT) model has been built which directly uses three-dimensional coordinates and day of the year to calculate the weighted mean temperature. The data of year 2005–2009 from 135 radiosonde stations provided by the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive were used to calculate the model coefficients, which have been validated through examples. The result shows that the GWMT model is generally better than the existing liner models in most areas according to the statistic indexes (namely, mean absolute error and root mean square). Then we calculated precipitable water vapor, and the result shows that GWMT model can also yield high precision PWV.


GPS meteorology Weighted mean temperature GPT model GWMT model 

List of abbreviations


Global positioning system


Global pressure and temperature


Global weighted mean temperature


Global navigation satellite system


European Centre for Medium-Range


Weather Forecasts


National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research


Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive


International GNSS service


Mean absolute error


Precipitable water vapor


Root mean square


Zenith wet delay


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Supplementary material

190_2012_568_MOESM1_ESM.doc (34 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 35 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geodesy and GeomaticsWuhan UniversityWuhanChina

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