Carrier-phase inter-frequency biases of GLONASS receivers
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The frequency division multiplexing of the GLONASS signals causes inter-frequency biases in the receiving equipment. These biases vary considerably for receivers from different manufacturers and thus complicate or prevent carrier-phase ambiguity fixing. Complete and reliable ambiguity fixing requires a priori information of the carrier-phase inter-frequency bias differences of the receivers involved. GLONASS carrier-phase inter-frequency biases were estimated for 133 individual receivers from 9 manufacturers. In general, receivers of the same type and even receivers from the same manufacturer show similar biases, whereas the differences among manufacturers can reach up to 0.2 ns (more than 5 cm) for adjacent frequencies and thus up to 2.4 ns (73 cm) for the complete L1 or L2 frequency bands. A few individual receivers were identified whose inter-frequency biases behave differently as compared to other receivers of the same type or whose biases vary with time.
KeywordsGLONASS Carrier-phase Inter-frequency bias Ambiguity fixing
The author kindly acknowledges the help of Susanne Haase with the pre-processing of the observation data, and the support by Dorothee Weniger who prepared Figs. 1 and 2. The following institutions are acknowledged for providing GPS/GLONASS observation data: EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), International GNSS Service (IGS), TERIA Network, France, Bavarian Commission for International Geodesy, Munich, Germany, and Institute of Communications and Navigation of the German Aerospace Center, Neustrelitz, Germany. Last but not least, the author acknowledges helpful comments by P. Willis and three anonymous reviewers of the manuscript.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
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Open AccessThis is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0), which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.