Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 86, Issue 2, pp 139–148 | Cite as

Carrier-phase inter-frequency biases of GLONASS receivers

Open Access
Original Article

Abstract

The frequency division multiplexing of the GLONASS signals causes inter-frequency biases in the receiving equipment. These biases vary considerably for receivers from different manufacturers and thus complicate or prevent carrier-phase ambiguity fixing. Complete and reliable ambiguity fixing requires a priori information of the carrier-phase inter-frequency bias differences of the receivers involved. GLONASS carrier-phase inter-frequency biases were estimated for 133 individual receivers from 9 manufacturers. In general, receivers of the same type and even receivers from the same manufacturer show similar biases, whereas the differences among manufacturers can reach up to 0.2 ns (more than 5 cm) for adjacent frequencies and thus up to 2.4 ns (73 cm) for the complete L1 or L2 frequency bands. A few individual receivers were identified whose inter-frequency biases behave differently as compared to other receivers of the same type or whose biases vary with time.

Keywords

GLONASS Carrier-phase Inter-frequency bias Ambiguity fixing 

References

  1. Bruyninx C, Becker M, Stangl G (2001) Regional densification of the IGS in Europe using the EUREF permanent GPS network (EPN). Phys Chem Earth 26(6–8): 531–538. doi:10.1016/S1464-1895(01)00096-5 Google Scholar
  2. Dow JM, Neilan RE, Rizos C (2009) The International GNSS Service in a changing landscape of Global Navigation Satellite Systems. J Geod 83: 191–198. doi:10.1007/s00190-008-0300-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hofmann-Wellenhof B, Lichtenegger H, Wasle E (2008) GNSS—Global Navigation Satellite Systems. Springer, WienGoogle Scholar
  4. ICD (2008) GLONASS Interface Control Document, edn 5.1, Russian Institute of Space Device EngineeringGoogle Scholar
  5. Kouba J (2009) A Guide to Using International GNSS Service (IGS) Products. http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/resource/pubs/UsingIGSProductsVer21.pdf
  6. Kozlov D, Tkachenko M, Tochilin A (2000) Statistical characterization of hardware biases in GPS+GLONASS receivers. In: Proceedings of ION GPS 2000, pp 817–826Google Scholar
  7. Leick A (2004) GPS Satellite Surveying, 3rd edn. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  8. Pratt M, Burke B, Misra, P (1998) Single-epoch integer ambiguity resolution with GPS-GLONASS L1-L2 Data. In: Proceedings of ION GPS-98, pp 389–398Google Scholar
  9. Revnivykh S (2010) GLONASS Status and Progress. In: Proceedings of ION GNSS 2010, pp 609–633Google Scholar
  10. Wanninger L, Wallstab-Freitag S (2007) Combined processing of GPS, GLONASS, and SBAS code phase and carrier phase measurements. In: Proceedings of ION GNSS 2007, pp 866–875Google Scholar
  11. Yamanda H, Takasu T, Kubo N, Yasuda A (2010) Evaluation and calibration of receiver inter-channel biases for RTK-GPS/GLONASS. In: Proceedings of ION GNSS 2010, pp 1580–1587Google Scholar
  12. Zinoviev AE (2005) Using GLONASS in combined GNSS receivers: current status. In: Proceedings of ION GNSS 2005, pp 1046–1057Google Scholar
  13. Zinoviev AE, Veitsel AV, Dolgin DA (2009) Renovated GLONASS: improved performances of GNSS receivers. In: Proceedings of ION GNSS 2009, pp 3271–3277Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geodätisches Institut, TU DresdenDresdenGermany

Personalised recommendations