Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 86, Issue 2, pp 139–148 | Cite as

Carrier-phase inter-frequency biases of GLONASS receivers

Open Access
Original Article


The frequency division multiplexing of the GLONASS signals causes inter-frequency biases in the receiving equipment. These biases vary considerably for receivers from different manufacturers and thus complicate or prevent carrier-phase ambiguity fixing. Complete and reliable ambiguity fixing requires a priori information of the carrier-phase inter-frequency bias differences of the receivers involved. GLONASS carrier-phase inter-frequency biases were estimated for 133 individual receivers from 9 manufacturers. In general, receivers of the same type and even receivers from the same manufacturer show similar biases, whereas the differences among manufacturers can reach up to 0.2 ns (more than 5 cm) for adjacent frequencies and thus up to 2.4 ns (73 cm) for the complete L1 or L2 frequency bands. A few individual receivers were identified whose inter-frequency biases behave differently as compared to other receivers of the same type or whose biases vary with time.


GLONASS Carrier-phase Inter-frequency bias Ambiguity fixing 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geodätisches Institut, TU DresdenDresdenGermany

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