Journal of Geodesy

, 82:473

ADOP in closed form for a hierarchy of multi-frequency single-baseline GNSS models

Open Access
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00190-007-0197-2

Cite this article as:
Odijk, D. & Teunissen, P.J.G. J Geod (2008) 82: 473. doi:10.1007/s00190-007-0197-2


Successful carrier phase ambiguity resolution is the key to high-precision positioning with Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP) is a well-known scalar measure which can be used to infer the strength of the GNSS model for carrier phase ambiguity resolution. In this contribution we present analytical closed-form expressions for the ADOP. This will be done for a whole class of different multi- frequency single baseline models. These models include the geometry-fixed, the geometry-free and the geometry-based models, respectively. And within the class of geometry-based models, we discriminate between short and long observation time spans, and between stationary and moving receivers. The easy-to-use ADOP expressions can be applied to infer the contribution of various GNSS model factors. They comprise, for instance, the type, the number and the precision of the GNSS observations, the number and selection of frequencies, the presence of atmospheric disturbances, the length of the observation time span and the length of the baseline.


ADOP GNSS GPS Ambiguity resolution 

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Delft Institute of Earth Observation and Space Systems (DEOS)Delft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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