Advertisement

Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 81, Issue 5, pp 325–335 | Cite as

GPS sidereal filtering: coordinate- and carrier-phase-level strategies

  • A. E. Ragheb
  • P. J. Clarke
  • S. J. Edwards
Original Article

Abstract

Multipath error is considered one of the major errors affecting GPS observations. One can benefit from the repetition of satellite geometry approximately every sidereal day, and apply filtering to help minimize this error. For GPS data at 1 s interval processed using a double-difference strategy, using the day-to-day coordinate or carrier-phase residual autocorrelation determined with a 10-h window leads to the steadiest estimates of the error-repeat lag, although a window as short as 2 h can produce an acceptable value with > 97% of the optimal lag’s correlation. We conclude that although the lag may vary with time, such variation is marginal and there is little advantage in using a satellite-specific or other time-varying lag in double-difference processing. We filter the GPS data either by stacking a number of days of processed coordinate residuals using the optimum “sidereal” lag (23 h 55 m 54 s), and removing these stacked residuals from the day in question (coordinate space), or by a similar method using double-difference carrier-phase residuals (observational space). Either method results in more consistent and homogeneous set of coordinates throughout the dataset compared with unfiltered processing. Coordinate stacking reduces geometry-related repeating errors (mainly multipath) better than carrier-phase residual stacking, although the latter takes less processing time to achieve final filtered coordinates. Thus, the optimal stacking method will depend on whether coordinate precision or computational time is the over-riding criterion.

Keywords

GPS Multipath Sidereal filter Autocorrelation Single epoch positioning 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Al-Haifi Y (1996) Short range GPS single epoch ambiguity resolution. PhD thesis, Department of Surveying, University of Newcastle upon TyneGoogle Scholar
  2. Axelrad P, Comp CJ, MacDoran PF (1996) SNR-based multipath error correction for GPS differential phase. IEEE Trans Aerosp Electron Syst 32(2):650–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Choi K, Bilich A, Larson K, Axelrad P (2004) Modified sidereal filtering: implications for high-rate GPS positioning. Geophys Res Lett 3, L22608. Doi 10.1029/2004GL021621Google Scholar
  4. Corbett S (1994) GPS single epoch ambiguity resolution for airborne positioning and orientation. PhD thesis, Department of Surveying, University of Newcastle upon TyneGoogle Scholar
  5. Estey L, Meertens C (1999) TEQC: The multi-purpose toolkit for GPS/GLONASS data. GPS Solut 3(1):42–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Filippov V, Tatarnicov D, Ashjaee J, Astakhov A, Sutiagin I (1999)The first Dual-depth Dual-frequency choke ring. In: Proceedings of the 12th Technical meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, ION GPS-99, Nashville Convention Centre, NashvilleGoogle Scholar
  7. Genrich J, Bock Y (1992) Rapid resolution of crustal motion at short ranges with the global positioning system. Geophys Res Lett 97:3261–3269Google Scholar
  8. Larson K, Bilich A, Axelrad P (2006) Improving the precision of high-rate GPS. J Geophys Res (submitted)Google Scholar
  9. Lau L, Mok E (1999) Improvement of GPS Relative Positioning accuracy by using SNR. J Surveying Eng-ASCE 125(4):185–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Leick A (2004) GPS Satellite Surveying. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Neilan R, Zumberge J, Beutler G, Kouba J (1997) The International GPS Service: A Global Resource for GPS Applications and Research. In: Proceedings of 10th Technical meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, ION GPS-97, Kansas City Convention Centre, Kansas CityGoogle Scholar
  12. Nikolaidis R, Bock Y, de Jonge P, Shearer P, Agnew D, Van Domselaar M (2001) Seismic wave observations with the global positioning system. Geophys Res Lett 106(B10):21897– 21916Google Scholar
  13. Penna N, Stewart M (2003) Aliased tidal signatures in continuous GPS height time series. Geophys Res Lett 30(23):2184. Doi 10.1029/2003GL018828Google Scholar
  14. Satirapod C, Rizos C (2005) Multipath mitigation by wavelet analysis for GPS base station applications. Surv Rev 38(295):2–10Google Scholar
  15. Van Dierendonck AJ, Braaasch MS (1997) Evaluation of GNSS receiver correlation processing techniques for multipath and noise mitigation. In: Proceedings of the National Technical meeting “Navigation and Positioning in the Information Age”, Loews Santa Monica Beach Hotel, Santa MonicaGoogle Scholar
  16. Zheng D, Zhong P, Ding X, Chen W (2005) Filtering GPS time-series using a Vondrak filter and cross-validation. J Geod 79(6–7):363–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil Engineering and GeosciencesNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK

Personalised recommendations