Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 80, Issue 5, pp 248–258 | Cite as

Determination of Postglacial Land Uplift in Fennoscandia from Leveling, Tide-gauges and Continuous GPS Stations using Least Squares Collocation

  • Olav VestølEmail author
Original Article


Precise leveling, tide-gauge recordings and time series from continuous GPS stations are all sources of information about the ongoing postglacial land uplift in Fennoscandia. This article describes how to gather these three sources of data together in a least-squares collocation adjustment in order to calculate uplift rates, as well as new heights for the benchmarks in the leveling network. The estimated reliability of the resulting uplift model is in general better than 0.4 mm/year, decreasing in areas of fewer data.


Postglacial land uplift Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) Least-squares collocation (LSC) Precise leveling tide-gauges Continuous GPS (cGPS) 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Norwegian Mapping AuthoritiesHønefossNorway

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